Furosemide Exposure and Prevention of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Premature Infants

J Pediatr. 2019 May:208:134-140.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.11.043. Epub 2018 Dec 20.


Objective: To evaluate the association between furosemide exposure and risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).

Study design: This retrospective cohort study included infants (2004-2015) born at 23-29 weeks gestational age and 501-1249 g birth weight. We compared the demographic and clinical characteristics of infants exposed and not exposed to furosemide between postnatal day 7 and 36 weeks postmenstrual age. We examined the association between furosemide exposure and 2 outcomes: BPD and BPD or death. We performed multivariable probit regression models that included demographic and clinical variables in addition to 2 instrumental variables: furosemide exposure by discharge year, and furosemide exposure by site.

Results: Of 37 693 included infants, 19 235 (51%) were exposed to furosemide; these infants were more premature and had higher respiratory support. Of 33 760 infants who survived to BPD evaluation, 15 954 (47%) had BPD. An increase in the proportion of furosemide exposure days by 10 percentage points was associated with a decrease in both the incidence of BPD (4.6 percentage points; P = .001), and BPD or death (3.7 percentage points; P = .01).

Conclusions: More days of furosemide exposure between postnatal day 7 and 36 weeks was associated with decreased risk of BPD and a combined outcome of BPD or death.

Keywords: BPD; chronic lung disease; diuretic; neonate; preterm.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Birth Weight
  • Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia / prevention & control*
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Female
  • Furosemide / administration & dosage*
  • Gestational Age
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Premature
  • Infant, Premature, Diseases / prevention & control
  • Infant, Very Low Birth Weight
  • Male
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sodium Potassium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors / administration & dosage
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Sodium Potassium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors
  • Furosemide