Vertical ridge augmentation using guided bone regeneration procedure and dental pulp derived mesenchymal stem cells with simultaneous dental implant placement: A histologic study in a sheep model

J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2019 Jun;120(3):216-223. doi: 10.1016/j.jormas.2018.12.011. Epub 2018 Dec 20.


Objectives: To determine the effects of bone graft and dental pulp derived mesenchymal stem cells (DPMSCs) implantation with simultaneous dental implant placement on osteointegration, newly formed bone and vertical bone height histologically and histomorphometrically in a sheep model.

Material and methods: A total of 48 implants were divided into three groups. In Group I (n = 16), no material was placed around the implants. In Group II (n = 16), particulate deproteinized bovine bone graft (DBBG) was placed around the implant and in Group III (n = 16), 2 × 106 DPMSCs were placed around the implant with DBBG. All implants were covered with a 20 × 30 mm collagen membrane and the edges of the membrane were fixed with mini screws. The animals were sacrificed 3 and 6 weeks after surgery. Histologic and histomorphometric assessments were performed.

Results: The area of newly formed bone in Groups I, II, and III were calculated as percentage 2.15 ± 0.22, 11.88 ± 0.77, and 14.50 ± 0.67 respectively after 3 weeks and 3.33 ± 0.37, 18.45 ± 0.33, and 29 ± 1.07 after 6 weeks, respectively (P < 0.05). Three weeks after dental implant placement, the vertical bone length was 0.17 ± 0.02 mm in Group I, 0.89 ± 0.068 mm in Group II and 0.96 ± 0.05 mm in Group III. After 6 weeks, these values were 0.28 ± 0.03 mm, 1.34 ± 0.08 mm, and 1.49 ± 0.08 mm, respectively. There was no significant difference between Groups II and III at 3 and 6 weeks in terms of vertical bone length.

Conclusion: Bone graft and DPMSCs application with dental implant have beneficial effects on newly formed bone and vertical bone height in this experimental sheep model.

Keywords: Animal experiments; Dental pulp-derived stem cells; Guided tissue regeneration; Morphometric analysis; Vertical augmentation.

MeSH terms

  • Alveolar Ridge Augmentation*
  • Animals
  • Bone Regeneration
  • Cattle
  • Dental Implantation, Endosseous
  • Dental Implants*
  • Dental Pulp
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells*
  • Sheep


  • Dental Implants