Revised International Staging System Is Predictive and Prognostic for Early Relapse (<24 months) after Autologous Transplantation for Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2019 Apr;25(4):683-688. doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.12.141. Epub 2018 Dec 21.


The revised International Staging System (R-ISS) combines ISS with genetic markers and lactate dehydrogenase and can prognosticate newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM). Early relapse (<24 months) after upfront autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) strongly predicts inferior overall survival (OS). We examined the ability of R-ISS in predicting early relapse and its independent prognostic effect on postrelapse survival after an early relapse. Using the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database we identified MM patients receiving first AHCT within 18 months after diagnosis with available R-ISS stage at diagnosis (n = 628). Relative risks of relapse/progression, progression-free survival (PFS), and OS were calculated with the R-ISS group as a predictor in multivariate analysis. Among early relapsers, postrelapse survival was tested to identify factors affecting postrelapse OS. The cumulative incidence of early relapse was 23%, 39%, and 50% for R-ISS I, R-ISS II, and R-ISS III, respectively (P < .001). Shorter PFS and OS were seen with higher stage R-ISS. R-ISS was independently predictive for inferior postrelapse OS among early relapsers, as was the presence of ≥3 comorbidities and the use of ≥2 induction chemotherapy lines. R-ISS stage at diagnosis predicts early post-AHCT relapse and independently affects postrelapse survival among early relapsers.

Keywords: Myeloma stage; Postrelapse survival; Transplant.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Female
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / methods*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multiple Myeloma / mortality
  • Multiple Myeloma / therapy*
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Prognosis
  • Recurrence
  • Transplantation Conditioning / methods*
  • Transplantation, Autologous / methods*