Purpose: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and globally. There is significant evidence implicating genetic and dietary factors in the development and progression of CVD and its risk factors. Nutritional genomics is a comparatively new field of science that focuses on the relationship of individual genetic variation with response to nutrition. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent progress, in the field of nutritional genomics as it relates to cardiovascular disease.
Recent findings: Evidence from recent studies has shown significant effects of gene-diet interactions on CVD biomarkers and the development and progression of CVD. The cardiovascular effects of gene-nutrient interactions with respect to macronutrients and genes such as FTO, ACE, PPARs, TCF7L2, BDNF, MC4R, APOAs, FADS, etc. have shown consistent results across age groups and populations whereas gene-nutrient interaction effects of other genes have only been limited to specific ages, genders or populations and need to validated and confirmed.
Summary: The identification of individual genetic variation influencing diet-related CVD risk is important and may inform future nutritional intervention studies. Although there is ample scientific evidence indicating that the genetic susceptibility to CVD can be modified by diet, we are still not at a stage where this information is easily translated into dietary plans. Thus, there is a need for better approaches to achieve precision in dietary data collection and streamline computational approaches for meaningful and effective nutritional interventions.
Keywords: Nutrients; diet; genetics; genomics; precision nutrition; transcriptomics.