Complement dependent cytotoxicity to malignant melanoma tumor cells was demonstrated in incubations that included rheumatoid factor (RF) positive plasma and normal plasma. Cytotoxicity was not demonstrated to cells from a number of normal tissues. The phenomenon involved coating of tumor cells with immunoglobulins and complement fixation. The activity in RF positive plasma was present in high titer an may not be RF. The activity in normal plasma was present in low titer, was found in plasma from eight out of 11 healthy subjects and may be a naturally occurring antibody. This previously undescribed humoral cytotoxicity system may participate in tumor host interactions, especially after therapy, when the majority of patients become RF seropositive.