Background: Epidemiologic studies have suggested hair dye to be a risk factor for many cancers. However, previous studies on the association between the personal use of hair dye and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) have been inconclusive.
Methods: The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases, as well as the references cited in included studies, were searched for relevant studies up to February 10, 2015. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were applied to assess the strength of the association. Publication bias was evaluated using a funnel plot by Egger's and Begg's tests.
Results: A total of 16 studies were included in the analysis, including 13 case-control studies and 3 cohort studies. The present meta-analysis results revealed that the risk of NHL in a high population of hair dye users was 14% (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.29). Furthermore, individuals who used more than 20 pack-years of hair dye had increased risk of NHL.
Conclusion: The outcomes indicate that hair dye use increases the risk of NHL, especially for females. Hence, people who frequently use hair dyes or have been using hair dyes for more than 20 years should minimize their exposure to hair dye products to prevent the risk of NHL.
Keywords: Hair dye; Meta-analysis; Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
© 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.
Conflict of interest statement
The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.
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