Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the cranial vertebral angle (CVA) and the range of motion (ROM) was different between participants with a forward head posture (FHP), with or without pain.
Methods: Forty-four participants who had FHP participated in this study. The FHP was assessed digitally by measuring a lateral view the CVA for each subject. A cervical ROM device measured the cervical ROM. The volunteers were allocated to either, with pain (n = 22), or without pain (n = 22) groups, and pain was evaluated using the Numeric Pain Rating Scale.
Results: The FHP in the pain group showed a significant difference in the CVA, and the cervical ROM in both flexion and extension, compared with those in the FHP without pain group (p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis indicated that the occurrence of cervical area pain was higher amongst subjects who had a decreased CVA and flexion motion.
Conclusion: This study suggested that decreased CVA and cervical flexion range, were predictive factors for the occurrence of pain in the cervical region.
Keywords: pain; range of motion; vertebra.
Conflict of interest statement
Conflicts of Interest No potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article was reported.
Effects of thoracic kyphosis and forward head posture on cervical range of motion in older adults.Man Ther. 2013 Feb;18(1):65-71. doi: 10.1016/j.math.2012.07.005. Epub 2012 Sep 5. Man Ther. 2013. PMID: 22959228
Short-term effects of the suboccipital muscle inhibition technique and cranio-cervical flexion exercise on hamstring flexibility, cranio-vertebral angle, and range of motion of the cervical spine in subjects with neck pain: A randomized controlled trial.J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2018;31(6):1025-1034. doi: 10.3233/BMR-171016. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2018. PMID: 30248030 Clinical Trial.
Increased forward head posture and restricted cervical range of motion in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009 Sep;39(9):658-64. doi: 10.2519/jospt.2009.3058. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009. PMID: 19721213
Upper thoracic spine mobilization and mobility exercise versus upper cervical spine mobilization and stabilization exercise in individuals with forward head posture: a randomized clinical trial.BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2017 Dec 12;18(1):525. doi: 10.1186/s12891-017-1889-2. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2017. PMID: 29233164 Free PMC article. Clinical Trial.
The Relationship Between Forward Head Posture and Neck Pain: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2019 Dec;12(4):562-577. doi: 10.1007/s12178-019-09594-y. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2019. PMID: 31773477 Free PMC article. Review.
Cited by 1 article
Reliability and validity of measurements of cervical retraction strength obtained with a hand-held dynamometer.J Man Manip Ther. 2019 Sep;27(4):222-228. doi: 10.1080/10669817.2019.1586167. Epub 2019 Mar 18. J Man Manip Ther. 2019. PMID: 30935321 Free PMC article.