Background: The biological effects of nitric oxide are mediated via protein S-nitrosylation. Levels of S-nitrosylated protein are controlled in part by the denitrosylase, S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR). The objective of this study was to examine whether GSNOR inhibition improves outcomes after cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CA/CPR).
Methods: Adult wild-type C57BL/6 and GSNOR-deleted (GSNOR-/-) mice were subjected to potassium chloride-induced CA and subsequently resuscitated. Fifteen minutes after a return of spontaneous circulation, wild-type mice were randomized to receive the GSNOR inhibitor, SPL-334.1, or normal saline as placebo. Mortality, neurological outcome, GSNOR activity, and levels of S-nitrosylated proteins were evaluated. Plasma GSNOR activity was measured in plasma samples obtained from post-CA patients, preoperative cardiac surgery patients, and healthy volunteers.
Results: GSNOR activity was increased in plasma and multiple organs of mice, including brain in particular. Levels of protein S-nitrosylation were decreased in the brain 6 hours after CA/CPR. Administration of SPL-334.1 attenuated the increase in GSNOR activity in brain, heart, liver, spleen, and plasma, and restored S-nitrosylated protein levels in the brain. Inhibition of GSNOR attenuated ischemic brain injury and improved survival in wild-type mice after CA/CPR (81.8% in SPL-334.1 versus 36.4% in placebo; log rank P=0.031). Similarly, GSNOR deletion prevented the reduction in the number of S-nitrosylated proteins in the brain, mitigated brain injury, and improved neurological recovery and survival after CA/CPR. Both GSNOR inhibition and deletion attenuated CA/CPR-induced disruption of blood brain barrier. Post-CA patients had higher plasma GSNOR activity than did preoperative cardiac surgery patients or healthy volunteers ( P<0.0001). Plasma GSNOR activity was positively correlated with initial lactate levels in postarrest patients (Spearman correlation coefficient=0.48; P=0.045).
Conclusions: CA and CPR activated GSNOR and reduced the number of S-nitrosylated proteins in the brain. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of GSNOR prevented ischemic brain injury and improved survival rates by restoring S-nitrosylated protein levels in the brain after CA/CPR in mice. Our observations suggest that GSNOR is a novel biomarker of postarrest brain injury as well as a molecular target to improve outcomes after CA.
Keywords: S-Nitrosoglutathione; cardiopulmonary resuscitation; heart arrest; nitric oxide.