Annona muricata extract containing pharmaceutical emulgels with and without penetration enhancer for depigmenting and antierythmic effects

Pak J Pharm Sci. 2018 Nov;31(6 (Supplementary):2683-2688.


The basic purpose of this research work was to investigate the skin depigmenting and antierythmetic effects of emulgel containing Annona muricata L. fruit extract by comparing it with its control and the variation in these effects with the addition of penetration enhancer. The control (without extract and penetration enhancer i.e. clove oil 8%) and the two test formulations with 4% fruit extract FA and FB (without clove oil and with clove oil) were formulated and evaluated for in vitro characteristics (pH, conductivity and in vitro release). The emulgels were then applied on the cheeks of 26 healthy female human volunteers (n=26) for a study period of 12 weeks. Skin melanin and erythema contents were measured by Mexameter at base line and then after every 2 weeks. Both the test formulations showed significant decrease in melanin and erythema contents when compared to control but FB showed marked decrease in skin melanin when compared to the FA. While in case of skin erythema, the effects of FA were greater as compared to other formulation. When paired sample t test (5% level of significance) was applied, the test formulations showed significant results. This study reveals that the Annona muricata L. fruit extract naturally contains some important phenolic compounds and can be effectively used in topical preparations for the treatment of skin hyperpigmentation and dermatitis. Skin whitening effects can be increased by the addition of penetration enhancer.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Topical
  • Adult
  • Annona*
  • Emulsions
  • Erythema / drug therapy*
  • Erythema / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Gels
  • Humans
  • Plant Extracts / administration & dosage*
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification
  • Plant Extracts / metabolism*
  • Single-Blind Method
  • Skin Irritancy Tests / methods
  • Skin Pigmentation / drug effects*
  • Skin Pigmentation / physiology


  • Emulsions
  • Gels
  • Plant Extracts