The Effects of Oral Magnesium Supplementation on Glycemic Response among Type 2 Diabetes Patients

Nutrients. 2018 Dec 26;11(1):44. doi: 10.3390/nu11010044.


Background: Magnesium (Mg) supplementation may help control glycemic response among type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients.

Objective: This study means to determine whether Mg supplementation improves glycemic control indicators in patients with T2D.

Methods: After one week of the dietary stabilization phase, 42 T2D patients were stratified according to sex, age, fasting blood sugar (FBS) and Mg levels and then randomly allocated into two groups. The intervention group was on 250 mg/day of elemental Mg for three months while the control group did not receive any type of supplements throughout the intervention period.

Results: The daily administration of 250 mg of elemental Mg indicated a significant improvement in HbA1C (8.32 to 7.96%, p < 0.001), insulin levels (IL) (15.56 to 12.18 μIU/mL, p < 0.001), C-peptide (2.28 to 1.90 ng/mL, p = 0.001), HOMA.IR (6.16 to 4.44, p < 0.001) and HOMA.β% (59.99 to 52.37, p = 0.036) of the intervention group when compared with the control group after three months of intervention.

Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that oral Mg supplementation reduces insulin resistance and improves the glycemic control indicators among T2D patients.

Trial registration: current controlled trials PHRC/HC/32/15. Registered 5 October 2015.

Keywords: blood glucose; diabetes mellitus; insulin; magnesium.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / drug effects*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Magnesium / administration & dosage*
  • Magnesium / pharmacology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged


  • Blood Glucose
  • Magnesium