Longitudinal association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with adipokines and markers of glucose metabolism among Brazilian pregnant women

Br J Nutr. 2019 Jan;121(1):42-54. doi: 10.1017/S0007114518003057.


This study aimed to evaluate the longitudinal association of vitamin D status with glycaemia, insulin, homoeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, adiponectin and leptin. A prospective cohort with 181 healthy, pregnant Brazilian women was followed at the 5th-13th, 20th-26th and 30th-36th gestational weeks. In this cohort, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) plasma concentrations were analysed using liquid chromatography-tandem MS. Vitamin D status was categorised as sufficient or insufficient using the Endocrine Society Practice Guidelines (≥75/<75 nmol/l) and the Institute of Medicine (≥50/<50 nmol/l) thresholds. Linear mixed-effect regression models were employed to evaluate the association between vitamin D status and each outcome, considering interaction terms between vitamin D status and gestational age (P<0·1). At baseline, 70·7 % of pregnant women had 25(OH)D levels <75 nmol/l and 16 % had levels <50 nmol/l. Women with sufficient vitamin D status at baseline, using both thresholds, presented lower glycaemia than those with insufficient 25(OH)D. Pregnant women with 25(OH)D concentrations <75 nmol/l showed lower insulin (β=-0·12; 95 % CI -0·251, 0·009; P=0·069) and adiponectin (β=-0·070; 95 % CI -0·150, 0·010; P=0·085) concentrations throughout pregnancy than those with 25(OH)D levels ≥75 nmol/l. Pregnant women with 25(OH)D <50 nmol/l at baseline presented significantly higher leptin concentrations than those with 25(OH)D levels ≥50 nmol/l (β=-0·253; 95 % CI -0·044, 0·550; P=0·095). The baseline status of vitamin D influences the biomarkers involved in glucose metabolism. Vitamin D-sufficient women at baseline had higher increases in insulin and adiponectin changes throughout gestation than those who were insufficient.

Keywords: 1; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; ESPG; Endocrine Society Practice Guidelines; GDM; HOMA-IR; IOM; Institute of Medicine; gestational diabetes mellitus; homoeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance; 25(OH)2D3; 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3; 25(OH)D; Adipokines; Biomarkers; Glycaemia; Pregnancy; Vitamin D.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adipokines / blood*
  • Adiponectin / blood
  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Brazil
  • Cohort Studies
  • Diabetes, Gestational / blood
  • Diabetes, Gestational / prevention & control
  • Diet
  • Female
  • Gestational Age
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Leptin / blood
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications / blood
  • Prospective Studies
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives*
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / complications


  • ADIPOQ protein, human
  • Adipokines
  • Adiponectin
  • Blood Glucose
  • Insulin
  • Leptin
  • Vitamin D
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D