The relation of nasopharyngeal microbiota to the clearance of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis is not known. In a multicenter cohort, we found that 106 of 557 infants (19%) hospitalized with RSV bronchiolitis had the same RSV subtype 3 weeks later (ie, delayed clearance of RSV). Using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing and a clustering approach, infants with a Haemophilus-dominant microbiota profile at hospitalization were more likely than those with a mixed profile to have delayed clearance, after adjustment for 11 factors, including viral load. Nasopharyngeal microbiota composition is associated with delayed RSV clearance.
Keywords: Airway microbiota; bronchiolitis; children; infant; microbiome; respiratory infection; respiratory syncytial virus.
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