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Review
, 41 (12), 993-999

BC200 RNA: An Emerging Therapeutic Target and Diagnostic Marker for Human Cancer

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Review

BC200 RNA: An Emerging Therapeutic Target and Diagnostic Marker for Human Cancer

Heegwon Shin et al. Mol Cells.

Abstract

One of the most interesting findings from genome-wide expression analysis is that a considerable amount of noncoding RNA (ncRNA) is present in the cell. Recent studies have identified diverse biological functions of ncRNAs, which are expressed in a much wider array of forms than proteins. Certain ncRNAs associated with diseases, in particular, have attracted research attention as novel therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers. BC200 RNA, a 200-nucleotide ncRNA originally identified as a neuron-specific transcript, is abnormally over-expressed in several types of cancer tissue. A number of recent studies have suggested mechanisms by which abnormal expression of BC200 RNA contributes to the development of cancer. In this article, we first provide a brief review of a recent progress in identifying functions of BC200 RNA in cancer cells, and then offer examples of other ncRNAs as new therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers for human cancer. Finally, we discuss future directions of studies on BC200 RNA for new cancer treatments.

Keywords: BC200 RNA; cancer; diagnostic marker; ncRNA (noncoding RNA); therapeutic target.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of BC200 RNA
BC200 RNA is composed of three domains: a 5′ Alu domain, an internal A-rich domain, and a unique 3′ domain carrying C-rich sequences.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2. Involvement of BC200 RNA in the genesis and development of cancers
(A) Diagram depicting BC200 RNA signaling involved in induction of cancer-related phenotypes. BC200 RNA shifts Bcl splicing toward production of the Bcl-xL isoform, thereby preventing apoptosis; this effect is further achieved by upregulation of NPR3. BC200 RNA promotes cell proliferation by upregulating NPR3, EpCAM, and STAT3. Activation of STAT3 or upregulation of S100A11 by BC200 RNA causes stimulation of migration and invasion. BC200 RNA inhibits synthesis of the tumor-suppressive miRNA, miR-138, resulting in activation of migration and invasion. (B) Functional mechanisms of BC200 RNA. Left: Altering the splicing pattern of Bcl-x mRNA. In the absence of BC200 RNA, Sam68 regulates the splicing of Bcl-x by interacting with its pre-mRNA, leading to expression of Bcl-xS. BC200 RNA interacts with Bcl-x pre-mRNA and facilitates recruitment of hnRNP A2/B1 to the pre-mRNA. This recruitment interferes with binding of Sam68 to the pre-mRNA and consequently changes the fate of Bcl-x splicing to generation of Bcl-xL. Right: Stabilization of S100A11 mRNA. BC200 RNA stabilizes S100A11 mRNA, possibly by binding to its mRNA.

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