The genetics and biosynthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in fragrant rice

Plant Physiol Biochem. 2019 Feb:135:272-276. doi: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.12.012. Epub 2018 Dec 17.


Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a staple food for the majority of the world's population. Rice fragrance, aroma, or scent is not just a cooking quality, but also an eating quality of rice. Rice fragrance is a trait that is widely desired among rice consumers. Consequently, rice producers are sorting for rice cultivars with strong fragrance. High demand for fragrant rice cultivars has prompted rice breeders and researchers to investigate the genetics and the ways to improve fragrance in rice. It has been established by many researches that fgr gene on the chromosome 8 of rice controls its fragrance. As with other plants, rice contains BADH but because rice does not accumulate GB, a catalyst for BADH coding, BADH1 on chromosome 4 of rice and BADH2 on chromosome 8 of rice have been widely reported to be responsible for encoding BADH. badh2, a recessive allele of BADH2 has been confirmed to be responsible for fragrance in rice. badh2 and its alleles have been associated with the accumulation and synthesis of 2AP. Proline, ornithine, glutamate, methylglyoxal, Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase have all been identified as the precursors for the synthesis and accumulation of 2AP. By reviewing and summarising the main results of various researchers, we have been able to elucidate how various genes and metabolites influence 2AP accumulation in fragrant rice. It is our hope that this paper will be beneficial to researchers, who are working on the improvement of rice fragrance.

Keywords: 2AP; Rice; Rice fragrance; badh2; fgr.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Genes, Plant
  • Odorants
  • Oryza / genetics*
  • Oryza / metabolism
  • Pyrroles / metabolism*


  • Pyrroles
  • 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline