Validation of a short version of the Coercion Experience Scale (CES-18): Psychometric characteristics in a Spanish sample

Psychiatry Res. 2019 Feb;272:284-289. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.12.126. Epub 2018 Dec 25.


The Coercion Experience Scale (CES) is a questionnaire that evaluates the subjective experience of coercion during psychiatric hospitalization. This study aimed to assess a short version of the Coercion Experience Scale (CES-18) in a Spanish Sample (N = 114). Two authors independently selected the items, choosing those that could also be applied to the experience of coercion after the use of forced medication. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency coefficients. Internal validity was assessed by means of a factorial analysis based on the method of extraction of main components and using orthogonal rotation VARIMAX. Convergent and discriminatory validity was evaluated by correlation between the total score of the CES-18 with the original CES and a Visual Analogue Scale, The Davidson Trauma Scale and the Client Assessment of Treatment Scale. The CES-18 showed adequate internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.940). Factor analysis resulted in a two-factor solution (Coercion and Humiliation and Fear) explaining 64.2% of the total variance. The correlation between the original CES and CES-18 was adequate (r = 0.968). The scores suggested good divergent and convergent validity. The Spanish language CES-18 demonstrated adequate psychometric proprieties in order to assess perceived coercion during psychiatric hospitalization.

Keywords: Factor analysis; Perceived coercion; Reliability; Validation; Validity.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Coercion*
  • Female
  • Hospitals, Psychiatric*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mental Disorders / therapy*
  • Middle Aged
  • Psychometrics / instrumentation*
  • Psychometrics / standards
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Spain