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. 2018 Nov 25;2018:9150807.
doi: 10.1155/2018/9150807. eCollection 2018.

Antioxidant and Hypoglycemic Effects of Acidic-Extractable Polysaccharides From Cordyceps militaris on Type 2 Diabetes Mice

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Free PMC article

Antioxidant and Hypoglycemic Effects of Acidic-Extractable Polysaccharides From Cordyceps militaris on Type 2 Diabetes Mice

Huajie Zhao et al. Oxid Med Cell Longev. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

The present work was performed to evaluate the effect of acidic-extractable polysaccharides (AE-PS) from fruit bodies of Cordyceps militaris on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its structural characteristics. The T2DM mice induced by high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ) were administered with 100 and 400 mg/kg AE-PS for 4 weeks. Our work proved that AE-PS decreased the levels of serum lipid, lipid peroxidation, and blood glucose; improved glucose and insulin resistance; enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities; and attenuated the injuries of the liver, kidney, and pancreas in T2DM mice. These results might offer references for the exploitation of AE-PS as functional foods or natural drug source for preventing and treating HFD- and STZ-induced T2DM. Moreover, gas chromatography (GC) results revealed that AE-PS was heterogeneous and composed of fucose, ribose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose with mass percentages of 1.23%, 0.57%, 0.29%, 2.12%, 2.73%, 4.66%, and 88.4%, respectively. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated that AE-PS was a pyran-type polysaccharide with α- and β-configurations.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Antioxidant activities of AE-PS in vitro: (a) reducing power, (b) scavenging rate towards DPPH, and (c) scavenging rate towards hydroxyl radical.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Effect of AE-PS on body weights and organ indexes in T2DM mice. (a) Body weights and (b) organ indexes. The values are reported as the means ± SD. Bars with different letters are significantly different (P < 0.05).
Figure 3
Figure 3
Effects of AE-PS on FBG, serum insulin levels, and oral glucose tolerance ability in T2DM mice. (a) FBG levels, (b) insulin levels, and oral glucose tolerance test: (c) blood glucose levels and (d) AUC. The values are reported as the means ± SD. Bars with different letters are significantly different (P < 0.05).
Figure 4
Figure 4
Effect of AE-PS on serum properties in T2DM mice: (a) AST, (b) ALT, (c) BUN, (d) CRE, (e) HDL-C, (f) LDL-C, and (g) TC. The values are reported as the means ± SD. Bars with different letters are significantly different (P < 0.05).
Figure 5
Figure 5
Optical micrographs of mouse liver sections (400 × magnification) in T2DM mice. (a) NC group, (b) MC group, (c) GL group, (d) HAE-PS group, and (e) LAE-PS group.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Optical micrographs of mouse kidney sections (400 × magnification) in T2DM mice. (a) NC group, (b) MC group, (c) GL group, (d) HAE-PS group, and (e) LAE-PS group.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Effect of AE-PS on SOD, GSH-Px, CAT, and MDA in T2DM mice. (a–d) in hepatic homogenates, (e–h) in renal homogenates, and (i–l) in pancreatic homogenates, respectively. The values are reported as the means ± SD. Bars with different letters are significantly different (P < 0.05).
Figure 8
Figure 8
Preliminary characterizations: (a) GC chromatograms of standard monosaccharides, (b) GC chromatograms of AE-PS, (c) FT-IR, (d) 1H NMR, and (e) 13C NMR.

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