Non-Destructive Trace Detection of Explosives Using Pushbroom Scanning Hyperspectral Imaging System

Sensors (Basel). 2018 Dec 28;19(1):97. doi: 10.3390/s19010097.


The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of the non-destructive hyperspectral imaging system (HSI) and accuracy of the model developed using Support Vector Machine (SVM) for determining trace detection of explosives. Raman spectroscopy has been used in similar studies, but no study has been published which is based on measurement of reflectance from hyperspectral sensor for trace detection of explosives. HSI used in this study has an advantage over existing techniques due to its combination of imaging system and spectroscopy, along with being contactless and non-destructive in nature. Hyperspectral images of the chemical were collected using the BaySpec hyperspectral sensor which operated in the spectral range of 400⁻1000 nm (144 bands). Image processing was applied on the acquired hyperspectral image to select the region of interest (ROI) and to extract the spectral reflectance of the chemicals which were stored as spectral library. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and first derivative was applied to reduce the high dimensionality of the image and to determine the optimal wavelengths between 400 and 1000 nm. In total, 22 out of 144 wavelengths were selected by analysing the loadings of principal components (PC). SVM was used to develop the classification model. SVM model established on the whole spectrum from 400 to 1000 nm achieved an accuracy of 81.11%, whereas an accuracy of 77.17% with less computational load was achieved when SVM model was established on the optimal wavelengths selected. The results of the study demonstrate that the hyperspectral imaging system along with SVM is a promising tool for trace detection of explosives.

Keywords: hyperspectral imaging; principal component analysis; support vector machine; trace detection.