The Indonesian archipelago features an extraordinarily rich biota. However, the actual taxonomic inventory of the archipelago remains highly incomplete and there is hardly any significant taxonomic activity that utilises recent technological advances. The IndoBioSys project was established as a biodiversity information system aiming at, amongst other goals, creating inventories of the Indonesian entomofauna using DNA barcoding. Here, we release the first large scale assessment of the megadiverse insect groups that occur in the Mount Halimun-Salak National Park, one of the largest tropical rain-forest ecosystem in West Java, with a focus on Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera and Lepidoptera collected with Malaise traps. From September 2015 until April 2016, 34 Malaise traps were placed in different localities in the south-eastern part of the Halimun-Salak National Park. A total of 4,531 specimens were processed for DNA barcoding and in total, 2,382 individuals produced barcode compliant records, representing 1,195 exclusive BINs or putative species in 98 insect families. A total of 1,149 BINs were new to BOLD. Of 1,195 BINs detected, 804 BINs were singletons and more than 90% of the BINs incorporated less than five specimens. The astonishing heterogeneity of BINs, as high as 1.1 exclusive BIN per specimen of Diptera successfully processed, shows that the cost/benefit relationship of the discovery of new species in those areas is very low. In four genera of Chalcidoidea, a superfamily of the Hymenoptera, the number of discovered species was higher than the number of species known from Indonesia, suggesting that our samples contain many species that are new to science. Those numbers shows how fast molecular pipelines contribute substantially to the objective inventorying of the fauna giving us a good picture of how potentially diverse tropical areas might be.
Keywords: Chalcidoidea; Coleoptera; Diptera; Hymenoptera; Lepidoptera; BOLD; Biodiversity; IndoBioSys; Inventory; Java.