Biocatalysis in nonaqueous media is being used in increasing regularity both in academic and industrial research. A variety of biocatalysts have been used in organic media including enzymes, multi-enzyme systems, and whole cells. In addition, the nonaqueous media has encompassed both monophasic and biphasic solvent systems, enzymes and whole cells in reversed micelles, enzymes and cells in nearly anhydrous (no added water) solvents, and enzymes catalytically active in supercritical fluids and the gas phase. Recent US and overseas patents and scientific literature on biocatalysis in nonaqueous media are surveyed. Patent abstracts are summarized individually, and literature references are divided into major subheadings.