Nakamura, FY, Antunes, P, Nunes, C, Costa, JA, Esco, MR, and Travassos, B. Heart rate variability changes from traditional vs. ultra-short-term recordings in relation to preseason training load and performance in futsal players. J Strength Cond Res 34(10): 2974-2981, 2020-The aims of this study were to analyze heart rate variability (HRV) changes in futsal players during preseason training using both "criterion" (10-minute) and ultra-shortened (2-minute) measures, and to determine whether they were related to changes in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test, level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) performance and accumulated training load (TL). Eleven male competitive futsal players (age = 25.19 ± 4.70 years; body mass = 73.15 ± 11.70 kg; and height = 176.90 ± 5.01 cm) volunteered for the study. Data collection took place during the first to the fourth weeks of preseason training. Training load was monitored with session ratings of perceived exertion. The total distance (TD) covered during the Yo-Yo IR1 was recorded during week 1 and week 4. Heart rate variability was measured through the log-transformed root mean square of successive normal-to-normal interval differences using the ultra-short analysis, with its weekly mean (lnRMSSDM) and coefficient of variation (lnRMSSDCV) recorded, and by means of the criterion method (weeks 1 and 4). lnRMSSDM was likely higher at week 4 compared with week 1 using both criterion and ultra-short recordings. Moderate-to-large correlations were found between changes in the lnRMSSDM and lnRMSSDCV values and changes in TL and TD (r values ranged from -0.48 to 0.65). Changes in ultra-short HRV measures (i.e., increase in lnRMSSDM and decrease in lnRMSSDCV) during futsal preseason were associated with increased performance. The players who accumulated higher perceived TLs displayed smaller improvements in the Yo-Yo IR1 performance and HRV.