Objective: Longitudinal within-subject (WS) associations of mothers' momentary assessed physical activity (PA) parenting practices were examined with children's objectively measured PA during the same 2-hr time frame.
Method: Mother-child dyads (n = 189) completed five ecological momentary assessment (EMA) measurement bursts over 3 years. During each 7-day burst, mothers EMA-reported their past 2 hr PA parenting practices (i.e., encouraging their child to be physically active, taking their child someplace to be physically active), and children (Mage=9.6 years, SD = 0.9) wore an accelerometer to measure moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Two-part multilevel models were used, with zero portions representing not meeting MVPA and positive portions representing any MVPA, controlling for demographic covariates. Cross-level interaction terms of child sex and age with parenting were created to test moderation effects.
Results: When mothers reported taking their child to be physically active, children were more likely to get some MVPA (b = -0.56, p < .001). When mothers reported taking their child to be physically active more, children had higher levels of MVPA (b = 0.24, p < .001). When mothers reported encouraging their child to be physically active, children were less likely to get any MVPA (b = 0.27, p < .05). However, when mothers reported encouraging their child to be physically active more, children had higher levels of MVPA (b = 0.29, p < .001). These effects were not moderated by child sex or age.
Conclusions: WS variations of mothers' support for PA across the day were associated with changes in children's MVPA. Future research should consider promoting mothers' provision of support for increasing children's PA.
Keywords: health behavior; parenting; parents; spina bifida.
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