[Prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis in school children of the Mexican Bajío region]

Rev Alerg Mex. 2018 Oct-Dec;65(4):372-378. doi: 10.29262/ram.v65i4.527.
[Article in Spanish]

Abstract

Background: The prevalence of allergic diseases markedly varies according to the geographical region.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis in children of six and seven years of age.

Methods: Cross-sectional study that included a sample of almost 15 thousand children in five cities of Mexico. To obtain the prevalence of allergic diseases and their symptoms, the parents of the children answered The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for proportions.

Results: Of the total sample, 7466 (52.5 %) were boys and 7463 (47.5%) girls. In general, the prevalence of asthma, exercise-induced asthma and current asthma was 6.1 % (95% CI = 5.7%-6.5%), 2.1 % (95% CI = 1.9%-2.3%) and 11.6 % (95% CI = 11.1% -12.1%), respectively. On the other hand, the prevalence of allergic rhinitis was 5.4 % (95% CI = 5.1%-5.8%), rhinitis with conjunctivitis, 19.2 % (95% CI = 18.6%-19.8%), and current rhinitis, 52.8% (95% CI = 52.0%-53.6%). The prevalence of atopic dermatitis and current dermatitis was 3.4 % (95% CI = 3.1%-3.7%) and 7.8% (95 % CI = 7.4%-8.2%), respectively.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that the prevalence of allergic diseases in school children is similar to that observed in previous studies in Mexico.

Antecedentes: La prevalencia de enfermedades alérgicas varía notoriamente de acuerdo con la región geográfica. Objetivo: Determinar las prevalencias de asma, rinitis alérgica y dermatitis atópica en niños de seis y siete años residentes del Bajío, México. Métodos: Estudio transversal que incluyó una muestra de casi 15 mil niños en cinco ciudades del Bajío. Los padres contestaron el cuestionario de The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, de donde se obtuvo la prevalencia de las enfermedades alérgicas y sus síntomas. Se estimaron intervalos de confianza (IC) a 95 % para proporciones. Resultados: Del total de la muestra, 7466 (52.5 %) fueron niños y 7463 (47.5 %) niñas. En general, las prevalencias de asma, asma con el ejercicio y asma actual fueron 6.1 % (IC 95 % = 5.7-6.5 ), 2.1 % (IC 95 % = 1.9-2.3) y 11.6 % (IC 95 % = 11.1-12.1), respectivamente. Por su parte, la prevalencia de rinitis alérgica fue de 5.4 % (IC 95 % (5.1-5.8 ), de rinitis más conjuntivitis de 19.2 % (IC 95 % = 18.6-19.8) y de rinitis actual de 52.8 % (IC 95 % = 52-53.6). La prevalencia de dermatitis atópica y de dermatitis actual fue de 3.4 % (IC 95 % = 3.1-3.7) y 7.8 % (IC 95 % = 7.4-8.2). Conclusiones: Los resultados indicaron que la prevalencia de las enfermedades alérgicas en niños escolares es similar a las observadas en estudios previos en México.

Keywords: Allergic rhinitis; Asthma; Atopic dermatitis; Cross-sectional study.

MeSH terms

  • Asthma / epidemiology*
  • Child
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dermatitis, Atopic / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mexico / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Rhinitis, Allergic / epidemiology*