Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Review
, 58 (8), 2983-3008

Supplements With Purported Effects on Muscle Mass and Strength

Affiliations
Review

Supplements With Purported Effects on Muscle Mass and Strength

Pedro L Valenzuela et al. Eur J Nutr.

Abstract

Purpose: Several supplements are purported to promote muscle hypertrophy and strength gains in healthy subjects, or to prevent muscle wasting in atrophying situations (e.g., ageing or disuse periods). However, their effectiveness remains unclear.

Methods: This review summarizes the available evidence on the beneficial impacts of several popular supplements on muscle mass or strength.

Results: Among the supplements tested, nitrate and caffeine returned sufficient evidence supporting their acute beneficial effects on muscle strength, whereas the long-term consumption of creatine, protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids seems to consistently increase or preserve muscle mass and strength (evidence level A). On the other hand, mixed or unclear evidence was found for several popular supplements including branched-chain amino acids, adenosine triphosphate, citrulline, β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, minerals, most vitamins, phosphatidic acid or arginine (evidence level B), weak or scarce evidence was found for conjugated linoleic acid, glutamine, resveratrol, tribulus terrestris or ursolic acid (evidence level C), and no evidence was found for other supplements such as ornithine or α-ketoglutarate (evidence D). Of note, although most supplements appear to be safe when consumed at typical doses, some adverse events have been reported for some of them (e.g., caffeine, vitamins, α-ketoglutarate, tribulus terrestris, arginine) after large intakes, and there is insufficient evidence to determine the safety of many frequently used supplements (e.g., ornithine, conjugated linoleic acid, ursolic acid).

Conclusion: In summary, despite their popularity, there is little evidence supporting the use of most supplements, and some of them have been even proven ineffective or potentially associated with adverse effects.

Keywords: Ergogenic aid; Hypertrophy; Prevention of atrophy; Protein supplementation; Sarcopenia; Skeletal muscle.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

References

    1. J Am Coll Nutr. 2013;32(2):122-35 - PubMed

References

    1. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2013 Sep 22;10(1):57 - PubMed

References

    1. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015 Apr 24;12:19 - PubMed

References

    1. Clin J Sport Med. 2000 Jul;10(3):195-200 - PubMed

References

    1. Int J Sport Nutr. 1992 Dec;2(4):343-50 - PubMed

References

    1. Front Biosci. 2007 Jan 01;12:344-57 - PubMed

References

    1. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006 Feb;38(2):339-48 - PubMed

References

    1. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013 Feb 02;10(1):6 - PubMed

References

    1. J Strength Cond Res. 2009 Jan;23(1):116-20 - PubMed

References

    1. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012 Apr 17;9(1):17 - PubMed

References

    1. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2017 Nov 9;72(12):1595-1606 - PubMed

References

    1. Nutrients. 2016 Jul 01;8(7): - PubMed

References

    1. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2016 Nov;26(11):1039-1047 - PubMed

References

    1. J Physiol. 2001 Oct 15;536(Pt 2):625-33 - PubMed

References

    1. Nutrients. 2017 Aug 28;9(9):null - PubMed

References

    1. Endocrine. 2014 Apr;45(3):354-61 - PubMed

References

    1. Clin Nutr. 2019 Jun;38(3):1076-1091 - PubMed

References

    1. Ann Surg. 2009 Mar;249(3):355-63 - PubMed

References

    1. J Sports Sci Med. 2013 Mar 01;12(1):74-9 - PubMed

References

    1. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014 Nov;46(11):2039-46 - PubMed

References

    1. Sports Med. 2017 Jan;47(1):163-173 - PubMed

References

    1. J Strength Cond Res. 2016 Dec;30(12):3520-3524 - PubMed

References

    1. Int J Endocrinol. 2015;2015:856708 - PubMed

References

    1. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2006 Jun;16(3):233-44 - PubMed

References

    1. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Oct;283(4):E648-57 - PubMed

References

    1. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Nov;99(11):4336-45 - PubMed

References

    1. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2016 Oct 1;17(10):959.e1-9 - PubMed

References

    1. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Feb;103(2):465-73 - PubMed

References

    1. Am J Clin Nutr. 2018 Feb 1;107(2):217-226 - PubMed

References

    1. Curr Med Res Opin. 1981;7(7):475-81 - PubMed

References

    1. Clin Nutr. 2013 Oct;32(5):704-12 - PubMed

References

    1. J Strength Cond Res. 2011 Jan;25(1):178-85 - PubMed

References

    1. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 May;94(5):1630-7 - PubMed

References

    1. Crit Care Med. 2002 Sep;30(9):2022-9 - PubMed

References

    1. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2002 May;92(5):2005-11 - PubMed

References

    1. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2019 Jan;51(1):56-64 - PubMed

References

    1. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012 Oct 09;9(1):48 - PubMed

References

    1. Ann Nutr Metab. 2000;44(1):21-9 - PubMed

References

    1. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996 Jun;63(6):954-65 - PubMed

References

    1. J Nutr. 2006 Jan;136(1 Suppl):234S-6S - PubMed

References

    1. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2009 May;28(5):259-62 - PubMed

References

    1. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010 Nov;58(11):2129-34 - PubMed

References

    1. J Sport Health Sci. 2017 Dec;6(4):474-481 - PubMed

References

    1. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018 Jun 27;15(1):30 - PubMed

References

    1. Exp Gerontol. 2015 Feb;62:23-31 - PubMed

References

    1. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2008 Sep-Nov;79(3-5):173-5 - PubMed

References

    1. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2015 Sep 30;12:32 - PubMed

References

    1. Pflugers Arch. 2013 Apr;465(4):517-28 - PubMed

References

    1. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Feb;93(2):402-12 - PubMed

References

    1. J Clin Invest. 1975 Nov;56(5):1250-61 - PubMed

References

    1. J Strength Cond Res. 2012 Oct;26(10):2858-65 - PubMed

References

    1. Eur J Sport Sci. 2016 Sep;16(6):702-10 - PubMed

References

    1. Nutrients. 2017 Feb 21;9(2): - PubMed

References

    1. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Aug;72(2 Suppl):585S-93S - PubMed

References

    1. Br J Nutr. 2008 Jun;99(6):1275-83 - PubMed

References

    1. Sports Med. 2019 Jan;49(1):17-30 - PubMed

References

    1. Sports Med. 2012 Feb 1;42(2):99-117 - PubMed

References

    1. Sports Med. 1994 Oct;18(4):268-80 - PubMed

References

    1. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2012 Jun 12;9(1):54 - PubMed

References

    1. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2006 Oct;16(5):494-509 - PubMed

References

    1. Rejuvenation Res. 2015 Feb;18(1):57-89 - PubMed

References

    1. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2007 Aug 30;4:6 - PubMed

References

    1. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Jul;102(1):115-22 - PubMed

References

    1. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2007 Sep;2(3):250-9 - PubMed

References

    1. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013 Dec 03;10(1):53 - PubMed

References

    1. Sports Med. 2015 Feb;45(2):245-55 - PubMed

References

    1. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2015 Jun;25(3):278-84 - PubMed

References

    1. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004 Jun;36(6):983-90 - PubMed

References

    1. Exp Gerontol. 2015 Oct;70:97-104 - PubMed

References

    1. Cell Metab. 2014 Jul 1;20(1):183-90 - PubMed

References

    1. Nutrition. 1996 May;12(5):344-8 - PubMed

References

    1. Lancet. 1989 Feb 4;1(8632):231-3 - PubMed

References

    1. J Nutr. 2002 May;132(5):930-5 - PubMed

References

    1. Nutrients. 2018 Oct 23;10(11):null - PubMed

References

    1. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997 Feb;65(2):512-8 - PubMed

References

    1. Int J Sport Nutr. 1994 Jun;4(2):142-53 - PubMed

References

    1. Nutrients. 2017 Sep 21;9(10):null - PubMed

References

    1. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2011 Nov;35(6):757-62 - PubMed

References

    1. J Nutr. 2012 Dec;142(12):2220S-2224S - PubMed

References

    1. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018 Aug 1;15(1):38 - PubMed

References

    1. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2013 May;25(2):119-27 - PubMed

References

    1. J Am Coll Nutr. 2001 Aug;20(4):293-306 - PubMed

References

    1. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012 Jul 20;9(1):33 - PubMed

References

    1. Eur J Intern Med. 2016 Nov;35:10-15 - PubMed

References

    1. Am J Physiol. 1992 Jan;262(1 Pt 1):E27-31 - PubMed

References

    1. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014 Jul;9(4):615-20 - PubMed

References

    1. Osteoporos Int. 2017 Jun;28(6):1817-1833 - PubMed

References

    1. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2018 Jul;20(7):1793-1797 - PubMed

References

    1. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2005 Jun 11;2:43-9 - PubMed

References

    1. J Strength Cond Res. 2009 Jan;23(1):315-24 - PubMed

References

    1. Nutrition. 2017 Oct;42:30-36 - PubMed

References

    1. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002 Mar;34(3):537-43 - PubMed

References

    1. Br J Nutr. 2008 Apr;99(4):855-62 - PubMed

References

    1. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2008 Aug;18(4):389-98 - PubMed

References

    1. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2001 Dec;86(2):142-9 - PubMed

References

    1. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Mar;286(3):E321-8 - PubMed

References

    1. J Nutr. 2007 Jun;137(6 Suppl 2):1621S-1625S - PubMed

References

    1. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2012 Feb;37(1):115-26 - PubMed

References

    1. Acta Physiol Scand. 2001 Feb;171(2):177-85 - PubMed

References

    1. Nutrients. 2014 Oct 03;6(10):4058-73 - PubMed

References

    1. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2014 Oct;18(5):441-6 - PubMed

References

    1. Science. 2001 Nov 30;294(5548):1942-5 - PubMed

References

    1. PLoS One. 2014 Sep 30;9(9):e109141 - PubMed

References

    1. J Nutr. 2004 Jun;134(6 Suppl):1583S-1587S - PubMed

References

    1. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2018 Mar 15;464:46-55 - PubMed

References

    1. J Sports Sci. 2015;33(14):1459-66 - PubMed

References

    1. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1979 Mar;90(3):403-8 - PubMed

References

    1. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct;96(4):759-67 - PubMed

References

    1. Osteoporos Int. 2017 Nov;28(11):3239-3249 - PubMed

References

    1. J Nutr. 2004 Oct;134(10 Suppl):2858S-2862S; discussion 2895S - PubMed

References

    1. Front Physiol. 2017 Jun 07;8:390 - PubMed

References

    1. J Lab Clin Med. 2000 Mar;135(3):231-7 - PubMed

References

    1. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2015 Jan;70(1):57-62 - PubMed

References

    1. Cell Metab. 2013 Feb 5;17(2):162-84 - PubMed

References

    1. Acta Physiol Scand. 1982 Nov;116(3):309-11 - PubMed

References

    1. Amino Acids. 2012 Aug;43(2):519-29 - PubMed

References

    1. J Am Coll Nutr. 2016 Sep-Oct;35(7):627-638 - PubMed

References

    1. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2014 Jun 13;11:28 - PubMed

References

    1. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Feb;95(2):428-36 - PubMed

References

    1. J Nutr. 2018 Nov 1;148(11):1760-1775 - PubMed

References

    1. J Am Coll Nutr. 1999 Feb;18(1):6-12 - PubMed

References

    1. J Strength Cond Res. 2009 May;23(3):836-46 - PubMed

References

    1. Nutrition. 2004 Jul-Aug;20(7-8):632-44 - PubMed

References

    1. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2011 Mar;6(1):38-50 - PubMed

References

    1. Eur J Sport Sci. 2016 Nov;16(8):1095-103 - PubMed

References

    1. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2017 Dec 1;123(6):1501-1515 - PubMed

References

    1. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2017 Jun;117(6):1073-1084 - PubMed

References

    1. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018 Mar 5;15:11 - PubMed

References

    1. Amino Acids. 2012 Jun;42(6):2491-500 - PubMed

References

    1. J Exerc Nutrition Biochem. 2016 Dec 31;20(4):1-12 - PubMed

References

    1. Int Urol Nephrol. 2009;41(2):357-62 - PubMed

References

    1. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006 Apr;38(4):660-6 - PubMed

References

    1. Sports Med. 2009;39(10):813-32 - PubMed

References

    1. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2015 Dec;40(12):1233-41 - PubMed

References

    1. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016 Mar;48(3):543-68 - PubMed

References

    1. J Nutr. 2003 Sep;133(9):2879-82 - PubMed

References

    1. Obes Rev. 2017 Jun;18(6):700-711 - PubMed

References

    1. J Sex Marital Ther. 2016 May 18;42(4):297-301 - PubMed

References

    1. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2017 Apr;27(2):148-157 - PubMed

References

    1. Br J Sports Med. 2018 Apr;52(7):439-455 - PubMed

References

    1. Hypertension. 2010 Dec;56(6):1102-8 - PubMed

References

    1. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2015 Aug 15;119(4):385-95 - PubMed

References

    1. Nutrients. 2014 Nov 18;6(11):5224-64 - PubMed

References

    1. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017 Jun 20;14:20 - PubMed

References

    1. Eur J Sport Sci. 2015;15(8):712-9 - PubMed

References

    1. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2017 Feb;30(1):3-15 - PubMed

References

    1. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2018 Mar 1;28(2):178-187 - PubMed

References

    1. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2017 Apr;42(4):443-448 - PubMed

References

    1. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012 Dec 14;9(1):54 - PubMed

References

    1. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011 Dec;59(12):2291-300 - PubMed

References

    1. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011 Sep;111(9):2261-9 - PubMed

References

    1. J Strength Cond Res. 2010 May;24(5):1215-22 - PubMed

References

    1. Mol Biol Cell. 2000 May;11(5):1859-74 - PubMed

References

    1. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2016 Jul;26(7):755-63 - PubMed

References

    1. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1999 Jul;39(4):317-28 - PubMed

References

    1. BMJ Open. 2017 Jul 20;7(7):e014619 - PubMed

References

    1. Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec;30(6):807-11 - PubMed

References

    1. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1982 Aug;17(2):119-22 - PubMed

References

    1. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008 Sep;56(9):1766-8 - PubMed

References

    1. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2000 Oct;279(4):R1455-66 - PubMed

References

    1. Curr Med Res Opin. 2005 Apr;21(4):579-86 - PubMed

References

    1. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2015 Jul;40(7):689-94 - PubMed

References

    1. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2012 Jun 14;9(1):57 - PubMed

References

    1. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2011 Dec;144(1-3):454-62 - PubMed

References

    1. J Nutr. 2014 Nov;144(11):1694-702 - PubMed

References

    1. Sports Med. 2014 May;44 Suppl 1:S35-45 - PubMed

References

    1. J Am Coll Nutr. 2017 Mar-Apr;36(3):177-183 - PubMed

References

    1. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2017 Apr;27(2):105-114 - PubMed

References

    1. J Strength Cond Res. 2007 May;21(2):348-53 - PubMed

References

    1. Sports Med. 2001;31(11):785-807 - PubMed

References

    1. Br J Nutr. 2011 Feb;105(3):357-66 - PubMed

References

    1. Adv Enzymol Relat Areas Mol Biol. 1979;50:177-242 - PubMed

References

    1. J Sports Sci. 2017 Jun;35(11):1073-1082 - PubMed

References

    1. J Strength Cond Res. 2008 Mar;22(2):464-70 - PubMed

References

    1. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016;2016:4301621 - PubMed

References

    1. J Sports Sci Med. 2016 Aug 05;15(3):532-539 - PubMed

References

    1. Magnes Res. 2011 Dec;24(4):215-9 - PubMed

References

    1. J Diet Suppl. 2014 Mar;11(1):64-79 - PubMed

References

    1. J Am Diet Assoc. 2002 Nov;102(11):1621-30 - PubMed

References

    1. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2012 Jan;35(1):151-7 - PubMed

References

    1. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009 Sep;107(3):987-92 - PubMed

References

    1. Clin Nutr. 2010 Feb;29(1):18-23 - PubMed

References

    1. Amino Acids. 2013 Apr;44(4):1107-13 - PubMed

References

    1. Clin Nutr. 2019 Apr;38(2):564-574 - PubMed

References

    1. Res Sports Med. 2014;22(1):61-74 - PubMed

References

    1. Eur J Cell Biol. 2009 Jan;88(1):35-44 - PubMed

References

    1. J Nutr. 2008 Oct;138(10):2040S-2044S - PubMed

References

    1. J Strength Cond Res. 2002 Feb;16(1):157-60 - PubMed

References

    1. J Strength Cond Res. 2002 Aug;16(3):325-34 - PubMed

References

    1. FASEB J. 2005 Jul;19(9):1184-6 - PubMed

References

    1. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2018 Jan 6;58:583-601 - PubMed

References

    1. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Apr;59(4):508-17 - PubMed

References

    1. Sci Rep. 2016 May 26;6:26802 - PubMed

References

    1. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2011 Jun;36(3):405-11 - PubMed

References

    1. J Nutr. 2014 Jun;144(6):876-80 - PubMed

References

    1. Mar Drugs. 2015 Nov 19;13(11):6977-7004 - PubMed

References

    1. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2012 Jun 19;7:43 - PubMed

References

    1. Sports Med. 2014 Nov;44 Suppl 2:S149-53 - PubMed

References

    1. PLoS One. 2013 Dec 12;8(12):e83518 - PubMed

References

    1. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2010 Nov;200(3):237-48 - PubMed

References

    1. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013 Aug 06;10:36 - PubMed

References

    1. Br J Nutr. 2012 Sep 28;108(6):958-62 - PubMed

References

    1. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Dec;85(12):4481-90 - PubMed

References

    1. Nutr Rev. 2013 Apr;71(4):195-208 - PubMed

References

    1. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2006 Sep;101(3):848-52 - PubMed

References

    1. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2012;58(4):297-302 - PubMed

References

    1. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2013 May;208(1):57-65 - PubMed

References

    1. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2007 Aug;17 Suppl:S58-76 - PubMed

References

    1. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2014 Jun 16;11:29 - PubMed

References

    1. Magnes Res. 2017 Nov 1;30(4):120-132 - PubMed

References

    1. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015 Aug 16;12:32 - PubMed

References

    1. Nutr J. 2015 Jul 09;14:67 - PubMed

References

    1. Eur J Nutr. 2019 Jun;58(4):1475-1493 - PubMed

References

    1. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012 Sep 13;9(1):43 - PubMed

References

    1. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2018 Jan;19(1):6-11.e3 - PubMed

References

    1. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003 Jun;35(6):987-94 - PubMed

References

    1. Circulation. 2002 Nov 19;106(21):2747-57 - PubMed

References

    1. Nutrition. 2002 Jul-Aug;18(7-8):657-61 - PubMed

References

    1. Amino Acids. 2010 Jan;38(1):31-44 - PubMed

References

    1. Free Radic Biol Med. 2004 Aug 1;37(3):395-400 - PubMed

References

    1. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012 Oct 05;9(1):47 - PubMed

References

    1. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1999 Jan;86(1):29-39 - PubMed

References

    1. Sports Med. 2015 Sep;45(9):1285-1294 - PubMed

References

    1. J Sci Med Sport. 2015 Sep;18(5):575-80 - PubMed

References

    1. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008 Dec;33(6):1319-34 - PubMed

References

    1. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2018 May 3;15:33 - PubMed

References

    1. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:613890 - PubMed

References

    1. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012 Apr 17;9(1):16 - PubMed

References

    1. Sports Med. 2016 Jan;46(1):103-123 - PubMed

References

    1. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2009 Feb 19;6:6 - PubMed

References

    1. J Nutr. 2016 Dec;146(12):2625S-2629S - PubMed

References

    1. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Oct;50(10):3646-65 - PubMed

References

    1. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2013 Jun;153(1-3):111-8 - PubMed

References

    1. Int J Endocrinol. 2014;2014:525249 - PubMed

References

    1. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Apr;111(4):524-7 - PubMed

References

    1. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017 Jun 13;14:18 - PubMed

References

    1. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Aug;84(2):419-26 - PubMed

References

    1. Amino Acids. 2014 Dec;46(12):2643-52 - PubMed

References

    1. Ann Nutr Metab. 1983;27(3):214-9 - PubMed

References

    1. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Oct 3;101(1-3):319-23 - PubMed

References

    1. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2000 Jun;10(2):208-15 - PubMed

References

    1. PLoS One. 2007 Oct 03;2(10):e991 - PubMed

References

    1. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2015 Sep-Oct;61(2):168-75 - PubMed

References

    1. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):725-8 - PubMed

References

    1. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002 May;282(5):E1092-101 - PubMed

References

    1. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Apr;83(4):823-8 - PubMed

References

    1. Nutrition. 2006 Sep;22(9):872-81 - PubMed

References

    1. Ann Surg. 1989 Apr;209(4):455-61 - PubMed

References

    1. J Strength Cond Res. 2004 May;18(2):272-5 - PubMed

References

    1. J Physiol. 2013 May 1;591(9):2319-31 - PubMed

References

    1. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2012 Mar;7(1):2-5 - PubMed

References

    1. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Mar 1;302(5):E510-21 - PubMed

References

    1. Mol Aspects Med. 2005 Jun;26(3):203-19 - PubMed

References

    1. Physiol Rev. 1993 Jan;73(1):79-118 - PubMed

References

    1. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2003 Feb;94(2):651-9 - PubMed

References

    1. Eur J Nutr. 2017 Mar;56(2):775-784 - PubMed

References

    1. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2010 Jul;109(1):135-48 - PubMed

References

    1. Curr Aging Sci. 2013 Dec;6(3):251-7 - PubMed

References

    1. J Nutr. 2008 Oct;138(10):2045S-2049S - PubMed

References

    1. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2017 Mar;65(3):619-624 - PubMed

References

    1. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010 May 14;7:18 - PubMed

References

    1. J Physiol. 2013 Jun 1;591(11):2911-23 - PubMed

References

    1. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2017 Apr 1;312(4):E282-E299 - PubMed

References

    1. Nephron. 1996;74(2):261-5 - PubMed

References

    1. Br J Nutr. 2015 Jan 14;113(1):25-34 - PubMed

References

    1. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016 Jan 16;13:3 - PubMed

References

    1. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2017 Feb;27(1):32-42 - PubMed

References

    1. J Physiol. 2014 Dec 15;592(24):5391-408 - PubMed

References

    1. J Mol Neurosci. 2013 Jul;50(3):504-13 - PubMed

References

    1. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008 Apr;79(4):366-7 - PubMed

References

    1. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2011 Jul;66(7):751-64 - PubMed

References

    1. Physiol Rev. 2000 Jul;80(3):1107-213 - PubMed

References

    1. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Dec;96(6):1454-64 - PubMed

References

    1. Lancet. 1998 Apr 25;351(9111):1252-3 - PubMed

References

    1. Biochem J. 1975 Aug;150(2):235-43 - PubMed

References

    1. Amino Acids. 2005 Nov;29(3):177-205 - PubMed

References

    1. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011 Nov;21(11):851-6 - PubMed

References

    1. Sports Med. 2011 Mar 1;41(3):233-48 - PubMed

References

    1. Exp Gerontol. 2014 Sep;57:181-7 - PubMed

References

    1. J Strength Cond Res. 2017 Oct 16;:null - PubMed

References

    1. Nutrients. 2017 Feb 15;9(2):null - PubMed

References

    1. Eur J Intern Med. 2015 Jun;26(5):303-10 - PubMed

References

    1. Cell Metab. 2011 Jun 8;13(6):627-38 - PubMed

References

    1. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2017 Feb 6;14:12 - PubMed

References

    1. Front Nutr. 2014 Sep 01;1:14 - PubMed

References

    1. Clin Sci (Lond). 2011 Sep;121(6):267-78 - PubMed

References

    1. J Am Coll Nutr. 1992 Jun;11(3):326-9 - PubMed

References

    1. Pharmacol Res. 2015 Sep;99:86-100 - PubMed

References

    1. Nutr Rev. 2011 Sep;69(9):550-7 - PubMed

References

    1. Adv Pharm Bull. 2016 Dec;6(4):467-477 - PubMed

References

    1. Osteoporos Int. 2011 Mar;22(3):859-71 - PubMed

References

    1. Metabolism. 1994 Jan;43(1):114-22 - PubMed

References

    1. J Strength Cond Res. 2006 Feb;20(1):22-8 - PubMed

References

    1. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2002 May;57(5):M326-32 - PubMed

References

    1. Br J Sports Med. 2018 Mar;52(6):376-384 - PubMed

References

    1. Clin Nutr. 2018 Apr;37(2):551-557 - PubMed

References

    1. J Strength Cond Res. 2011 Jun;25(6):1752-8 - PubMed

References

    1. PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e39332 - PubMed

References

    1. J Nutr. 2001 Jul;131(7):2049-52 - PubMed

References

    1. J Sci Med Sport. 2018 Jul;21(7):727-735 - PubMed

References

    1. Prog Lipid Res. 2001 Jul;40(4):283-98 - PubMed

References

    1. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2012 Feb 1;302(3):R385-90 - PubMed

References

    1. Amino Acids. 2010 May;38(5):1533-9 - PubMed

References

    1. J Strength Cond Res. 2015 Mar;29(3):786-92 - PubMed

References

    1. Acta Physiol Scand. 2000 Apr;168(4):575-91 - PubMed

References

    1. Physiol Rev. 2001 Jan;81(1):209-237 - PubMed

References

    1. Biogerontology. 2012 Aug;13(4):345-58 - PubMed

References

    1. Sports Med. 2014 Nov;44 Suppl 2:S175-84 - PubMed

References

    1. Public Health Nutr. 2016 Nov;19(16):2924-2939 - PubMed

References

    1. Sports Med. 2017 Nov;47(11):2323-2339 - PubMed

References

    1. J Nutr Health Aging. 2015 Apr;19(4):437-46 - PubMed

References

    1. Int J Sport Nutr. 1999 Jun;9(2):125-35 - PubMed

References

    1. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2000 Oct;279(4):R1467-77 - PubMed

References

    1. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr;71(4):544-548 - PubMed

References

    1. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2017 Jul 1;123(1):190-196 - PubMed

References

    1. J Nutr Health Aging. 2011 Dec;15(10):883-9 - PubMed

References

    1. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010 Jul;42(7):1375-87 - PubMed

References

    1. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2004 Dec 31;1(2):35-8 - PubMed

References

    1. Prev Nutr Food Sci. 2015 Dec;20(4):238-45 - PubMed

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback