Restoration of damaged central nervous system structures, functional recovery, and prevention of neuronal loss during neurodegenerative diseases are major objectives in cerebellar research. The highly organized anatomical structure of the cerebellum with numerous inputs/outputs, the complexity of cerebellar functions, and the large spectrum of cerebellar ataxias render therapies of cerebellar disorders highly challenging. There are currently several therapeutic approaches including motor rehabilitation, neuroprotective drugs, non-invasive cerebellar stimulation, molecularly based therapy targeting pathogenesis of the disease, and neurotransplantation. We discuss the goals and possible beneficial mechanisms of transplantation therapy for cerebellar damage and its limitations and factors determining outcome.
Keywords: Ataxias; Cerebellar reserve; Cerebellum; Neurotransplantation; Stem cells.