Dysbiosis of gut microbiota is closely related to occurrence of many important chronic inflammations-related diseases. So far the traditionally prescribed prebiotics and probiotics do not show significant impact on amelioration of these diseases in general. Thus the development of next generation prebiotics and probiotics designed to target specific diseases is urgently needed. In this review, we first make a brief introduction on current understandings of normal gut microbiota, microbiome, and their roles in homeostasis of mucosal immunity and gut integrity. Then, under the situation of microbiota dysbiosis, development of chronic inflammations in the intestine occurs, leading to leaky gut situation and systematic chronic inflammation in the host. These subsequently resulted in development of many important diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, liver inflammations, and other diseases such as colorectal cancer (CRC), obesity-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD), the compromised lung immunity, and some on brain/neuro disorders. The strategy used to optimally implant the effective prebiotics, probiotics and the derived postbiotics for amelioration of the diseases is presented. While the effectiveness of these agents seems promising, additional studies are needed to establish recommendations for most clinical settings.
Keywords: Inflammation; Leaky gut; Prebiotics; Probiotics.