The mechanical loading and muscle activation of four common exercises used in osteoporosis prevention for early postmenopausal women

J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2019 Feb;44:124-131. doi: 10.1016/j.jelekin.2018.12.004. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Abstract

High impact exercise can reduce postmenopausal bone loss, however stimulus frequency (loading cycles per second) can affect osteogenesis. We aimed to examine the effect of stimulus frequency on the mechanical loading of four common osteoporosis prevention exercises, measuring body acceleration and muscle activation with accelerometry and electromyography (EMG), respectively. Fourteen early postmenopausal women completed randomised countermovement jumps (CMJ), box-drops (BD), heel-drops (HD) and stamp (STP) exercises for continuous and intermittent stimulus frequencies. Sacrum accelerometry and surface electromyography (EMG) of four muscles were recorded. CMJ (mean ± SD: 10.7 ± 4.8 g & 10.0 ± 5.0 g), BD (9.6 ± 4.1 g & 9.5 ± 4.0 g) and HD (7.3 ± 3.8 g & 8.6 ± 4.4 g) conditions generated greater peak acceleration than STP (3.5 ± 1.4 g & 3.6 ± 1.7 g) across continuous and intermittent trials. CMJ and BD generated greater acceleration gradients than STP across continuous and intermittent trials. CMJ generated greater rectus femoris EMG than all other exercises, CMJ and BD generated greater semitendinosus and tibialis anterior EMG than HD across continuous and intermittent trials. CMJ and BD provide greater peak acceleration than STP and remain similar during different stimulus frequencies. CMJ, BD and HD may exceed STP in maintaining postmenopausal bone health.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Exercise Therapy / methods*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Leg / physiology
  • Lumbosacral Region / physiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Muscle Contraction
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology*
  • Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / prevention & control*
  • Physical Conditioning, Human / methods*
  • Weight-Bearing