The second messenger 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) stimulates gene expression via the cAMP-regulated transcriptional coactivator (CRTC) family of cAMP response element-binding protein coactivators. In the basal state, CRTCs are phosphorylated by salt-inducible kinases (SIKs) and sequestered in the cytoplasm by 14-3-3 proteins. cAMP signaling inhibits the SIKs, leading to CRTC dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Here we show that although all CRTCs are regulated by SIKs, their interactions with Ser/Thr-specific protein phosphatases are distinct. CRTC1 and CRTC2 associate selectively with the calcium-dependent phosphatase calcineurin, whereas CRTC3 interacts with B55 PP2A holoenzymes via a conserved PP2A-binding region (amino acids 380-401). CRTC3-PP2A complex formation was induced by phosphorylation of CRTC3 at S391, facilitating the subsequent activation of CRTC3 by dephosphorylation at 14-3-3 binding sites. As stimulation of mitogenic pathways promoted S391 phosphorylation via the activation of ERKs and CDKs, our results demonstrate how a ubiquitous phosphatase enables cross talk between growth factor and cAMP signaling pathways at the level of a transcriptional coactivator.
Keywords: Biochemistry; Biological Sciences; Cell Biology; Molecular Biology.
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