Long term survival and perioperative propensity score matched outcomes in diaphragmatic interventions in cytoreductive surgery + intra-peritoneal chemotherapy

Eur J Surg Oncol. 2019 Apr;45(4):620-624. doi: 10.1016/j.ejso.2018.12.021. Epub 2018 Dec 29.


Objectives: To assess the impact of short and long term outcomes of diaphragmatic interventions in cyto-reductive surgery (CRS) and intra-peritoneal chemotherapy (IPC).

Methods: 1230 consecutive CRS/IPC procedures were preformed between 1996 and 2018 in Sydney, Australia. Redo procedures and incomplete cyto-reductions were excluded. Among these, 599 underwent diaphragmatic intervention. Preoperative heterogeneity was assessed for in 6 parameters and addressed with propensity score matching. CRS/IPC requiring diaphragmatic interventions were compared to CRS/IPC without diaphragmatic involvement. Ten perioperative outcomes were measured. Overall survival was assessed based on diagnosis type.

Results: Intraoperative results revealed a significant increase in operative hours (7.85 vs. 7.28, p = 0.033). Transfusion requirements were insignificantly different. Postoperatively, increased grade III and IV complications (36% vs. 26%, p = 0.052) were noted. There was no difference with regards to intensive care stay, hospital length of stay, hospital death and return to theatre. In terms of respiratory specific complications, an increased incidence of pneumothorax (13% vs. 3%, p = 0.001) and pleural effusions (24% vs. 16%, p = 0.043) were noted, whilst the differences in pneumonia were insignificant. Overall survival revealed diaphragm interventions; did not affect survival outcomes in colorectal cancers (p = 0.750, RR = 1.077, CI 0.683-1.697) and increased relative risk in low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (p = 0.025, RR = 2.437, CI 1.121-5.298).

Conclusion: After our three-tiered research strategy, we conclude that despite the marginal increase in short term morbidity; diaphragmatic interventions do not decrease survival in colorectal cancers and diaphragmatic disease in LAMNs maybe an independent prognosticator of disease aggression.

Keywords: Cytoreductive; Diaphragm; Intraperitoneal chemotherapy; LAMNs and colorectal.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage
  • Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures* / adverse effects
  • Diaphragm / surgery*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infusions, Parenteral
  • Male
  • Mesothelioma / pathology
  • Mesothelioma / therapy*
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Grading
  • Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous / secondary
  • Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous / therapy*
  • Operative Time
  • Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Pleural Effusion / etiology
  • Pneumothorax / etiology
  • Postoperative Complications / etiology*
  • Propensity Score
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Survival Rate
  • Time Factors