Study objective: We evaluate the effect of midazolam and haloperidol premedication for reducing ketamine-induced recovery agitation in adult patients undergoing procedural sedation. We also compare physician satisfaction and recovery time.
Methods: We randomized emergency department patients older than 18 years who needed procedural sedation to receive 1 of the following 3 interventions in double-blind fashion 5 minutes before receiving intravenous ketamine at 1 mg/kg: intravenous distilled water, intravenous midazolam at 0.05 mg/kg, or intravenous haloperidol at 5 mg. Our main study outcomes were recovery agitation as assessed by the maximum observed Pittsburgh Agitation Scale score and by the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale score at 5, 15, and 30 minutes after ketamine administration. Our secondary outcomes were clinician satisfaction and recovery duration.
Results: We enrolled 185 subjects. The maximum Pittsburgh Agitation Scale score was significantly less with midazolam compared with placebo (difference 3; 95% confidence interval 1.27 to 4.72) and with haloperidol compared with placebo (difference 3; 95% confidence interval 1.25 to 4.75), and Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale scores at 5, 15, and 30 minutes trended lower with the active agents. Midazolam and haloperidol significantly delayed recovery but did not alter overall clinician satisfaction.
Conclusion: For adult procedural sedation, premedication with either midazolam 0.05 mg/kg or haloperidol 5 mg intravenously significantly reduces ketamine-induced recovery agitation while delaying recovery.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02909465.
Copyright © 2018 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.