The Phosphoinositide Kinase PIKfyve Promotes Cathepsin-S-Mediated Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Antigen Presentation

iScience. 2019 Jan 25;11:160-177. doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2018.12.015. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Abstract

Antigen presentation to T cells in major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC class II) requires the conversion of early endo/phagosomes into lysosomes by a process called maturation. Maturation is driven by the phosphoinositide kinase PIKfyve. Blocking PIKfyve activity by small molecule inhibitors caused a delay in the conversion of phagosomes into lysosomes and in phagosomal acidification, whereas production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased. Elevated ROS resulted in reduced activity of cathepsin S and B, but not X, causing a proteolytic defect of MHC class II chaperone invariant chain Ii processing. We developed a novel universal MHC class II presentation assay based on a bio-orthogonal "clickable" antigen and showed that MHC class II presentation was disrupted by the inhibition of PIKfyve, which in turn resulted in reduced activation of CD4+ T cells. Our results demonstrate a key role of PIKfyve in the processing and presentation of antigens, which should be taken into consideration when targeting PIKfyve in autoimmune disease and cancer.

Keywords: Immune Response; Immunology; Molecular Mechanism of Gene Regulation.