Comprehensive Review of Molecular Mechanisms during Cholestatic Liver Injury and Cholangiocarcinoma

J Liver. 2018;7(3):231. doi: 10.4172/2167-0889.1000231. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Abstract

Cholestatic liver injury is characterized by damage induced on the biliary tree and cholangiocytes, the cells lining the biliary tree, thus they are termed "cholangiopathies". Cholangiopathies include diseases such as Primary Biliary Cholangitis, Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis, Biliary Atresia and Cholangiocarcinoma. These pathologies lack viable therapies and most patients are diagnosed during late stage disease progression (with the exception of Biliary Atresia, which is found shortly after birth). The lack of therapies for these diseases has put a significant burden on the need for liver transplantation as this is the only indicative "cure" for cholangiopathies. The molecular mechanisms for cholangiopathies have been extensively studied; however, and unfortunately, the lack of effective biomarkers and therapeutics remains. In this review article we highlight the latest studies to investigate the molecular mechanisms regulating cholangiopathies and the potential therapeutics that might be discovered.

Keywords: Cholangiopathies; Molecular mechanisms; Therapy.