Kratom Withdrawal: A Systematic Review with Case Series

J Psychoactive Drugs. Jan-Mar 2019;51(1):12-18. doi: 10.1080/02791072.2018.1562133. Epub 2019 Jan 5.

Abstract

Recent years have seen a widespread increase in kratom use, not just for the purpose of easing opioid withdrawal, but also for management of emotional and mental health concerns by individuals without histories of opioid use. Chronic use can lead to dependence, tolerance, and withdrawal on cessation, and clinicians are seeing an increasing number of presentations involving the latter. Although there is literature discussing the use of kratom to assist in opioid withdrawal, this article comprehensively examines independent withdrawal from kratom. We systematically review existing evidence and provide our own clinical cases. Clinicians need to be aware of the withdrawal symptomatology and implement a similar approach as for opioid withdrawal with long-term maintenance to prevent relapse.

Keywords: 7-hydroxymitragynine; kratom; mitragynine.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Analgesics, Opioid / adverse effects
  • Analgesics, Opioid / therapeutic use
  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Mitragyna / adverse effects*
  • Opioid-Related Disorders / therapy*
  • Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / therapy*

Substances

  • Analgesics, Opioid