Overexpressed human thymidine phosphorylase (hTP) has been associated with cancer aggressiveness and poor prognosis by triggering proangiogenic and antiapoptotic signaling. Designed as transition-state analogues by mimicking the oxacarbenium ion, novel pyrimidine-2,4-diones were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of hTP activity. The most potent compound (8g) inhibited hTP in the submicromolar range with a noncompetitive inhibition mode with both thymidine and inorganic phosphate substrates. Furthermore, compound 8g was devoid of apparent toxicity to a panel of mammalian cells, showed no genotoxicity signals, and had low probability of drug-drug interactions and moderate in vitro metabolic rates. Finally, treatment with 8g (50 mg/(kg day)) for 2 weeks (5 days/week) significantly reduced tumor growth using an in vivo glioblastoma model. To the best of our knowledge, this active compound is the most potent in vitro hTP inhibitor with a kinetic profile that cannot be reversed by the accumulation of any enzyme substrates.