Precise Anatomical Sublobar Resection Using a 3D Medical Image Analyzer and Fluorescence-Guided Surgery With Transbronchial Instillation of Indocyanine Green

Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2019 Autumn;31(3):595-602. doi: 10.1053/j.semtcvs.2019.01.004. Epub 2019 Jan 5.


We developed a novel approach combined with 3D image analyzer and infrared thoracoscopy for pulmonary sublobar resection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of this procedure. From October 2014 to April 2018, 65 cases were enrolled, and 58 cases were evaluated. For each case, several virtual sublobar resections were created by 3D image analyzer preoperatively. The surgical margin was measured in each simulated sublobar resection and the most appropriate procedure was selected. Surgical resection with matching virtual sublobar resection was performed using infrared thoracoscopy with transbronchial indocyanine green (ICG) instillation. We evaluated the border clarity of ICG fluorescence to investigate success of ICG injection and compared pre- and postoperative CTs to determine whether the correct area could be removed according to the simulation. We also compared short-term surgical outcomes between the ICG cases and historical segmentectomy cases by propensity score matching. The success rate of transbronchial ICG injections was 89.2% (58/65). These 58 patients were eligible for evaluation of our procedure. Sublobar resection included subsegmental resection (5), simple segmentectomy (15), complex segmentectomy (16), and extended segmentectomy (22). The shortest distances to the surgical margin by simulation and by actual measurement were 21.5 ± 11.2 mm and 23.5 ± 8.3, respectively (P = 0.190). Fifty-four of 58 cases underwent sublobar resection matched with the simulation (93.1% concordance rate). Operative results and short-term outcomes were similar between the 2 groups by propensity score matching. ICG-guided sublobar resection by transbronchial ICG instillation is feasible and applicable to any type of sublobar resection.

Keywords: Fluorescence imaging; Indocyanine green; Lung neoplasms; Sublobar resection; Synapse 3D.

Publication types

  • Video-Audio Media

MeSH terms

  • Bronchoscopy
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Fluorescent Dyes / administration & dosage*
  • Humans
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional*
  • Indocyanine Green / administration & dosage*
  • Lung Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging
  • Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • Lung Neoplasms / surgery*
  • Margins of Excision
  • Optical Imaging*
  • Pneumonectomy / adverse effects
  • Pneumonectomy / methods*
  • Surgery, Computer-Assisted / adverse effects
  • Surgery, Computer-Assisted / methods*
  • Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted* / adverse effects
  • Time Factors
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Indocyanine Green