Immune Exclusion-Wnt/CTNNB1 Class Predicts Resistance to Immunotherapies in HCC

Clin Cancer Res. 2019 Apr 1;25(7):2021-2023. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-3778. Epub 2019 Jan 7.


Next-generation sequencing has provided information on actionable targets and biomarkers of response in oncology. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), Wnt/CTNNB1 mutations characterize the immune-excluded class (cold tumors) and might represent the biomarkers predicting resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Large-scale validation of these data is needed to customize immunotherapy in advanced HCC.See related article by Harding et al., p. 2116.

Publication types

  • Comment

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy
  • Liver Neoplasms / genetics*
  • beta Catenin


  • CTNNB1 protein, human
  • beta Catenin