Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2019 Mar;188(1):208-220.
doi: 10.1007/s12011-018-1606-5. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

A Review of Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in the USA

Free PMC article

A Review of Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in the USA

Pallavi Panth et al. Biol Trace Elem Res. .
Free PMC article


Iodine, an essential micronutrient, is required to produce thyroid hormones. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) comprise a range of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, with the most significant irreversible effect resulting from neurodevelopmental deficits in fetal brain caused by deficient iodine status during early pregnancy. The objective of this scoping review was to summarize the studies that assessed iodine status of women of reproductive age in the USA. A systematic review of literature using the PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) statement was conducted. PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, EBSCOHost, Cochrane, ERIC, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases were searched, 1652 records were identified. One thousand six hundred forty-one records that did not satisfy the inclusion/exclusion criteria and quality review were excluded, and 11 peer-reviewed articles were determined to be eligible for this scoping review. Despite the USA being considered iodine sufficient for the general population, the US dietary iodine intakes have decreased drastically since the 1970s, with iodine deficiency reemerging in vulnerable groups such as women of reproductive age. Although data to conduct a scoping review of iodine status among women of reproductive age in the USA was scarce, majority of the articles reviewed demonstrate emergent iodine deficiency in this population of women of reproductive age, indicating alarm for a public health concern needing immediate attention.

Keywords: Iodine; Iodine deficiency; Iodine status; Thyroid; Urinary iodine; Women of reproductive age.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Study selection PRISMA flow chart

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 1 article


    1. Zimmermann M. The role of iodine in human growth and development. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2011;22(6):645–652. doi: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2011.07.009. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Zimmermann MB. Iodine deficiency. Endocr Rev. 2009;30:376–408. doi: 10.1210/er.2009-0011. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Venturi S, Donati F, Venturi A, Venturi M, Grossi L, Guidi A. Role of iodine in evolution and carcinogenesis of thyroid, breast and stomach. Adv Clin Pathol. 2000;4(1):11–17. - PubMed
    1. Silva J. The thermogenic effect of thyroid hormone and its clinical implications. Ann Intern Med. 2003;139(3):205–213. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-139-3-200308050-00010. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Institute of Medicine, Academy of Sciences. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin a, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium and zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001 - PubMed

LinkOut - more resources