A Review of Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in the USA

Biol Trace Elem Res. 2019 Mar;188(1):208-220. doi: 10.1007/s12011-018-1606-5. Epub 2019 Jan 7.


Iodine, an essential micronutrient, is required to produce thyroid hormones. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) comprise a range of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, with the most significant irreversible effect resulting from neurodevelopmental deficits in fetal brain caused by deficient iodine status during early pregnancy. The objective of this scoping review was to summarize the studies that assessed iodine status of women of reproductive age in the USA. A systematic review of literature using the PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) statement was conducted. PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, EBSCOHost, Cochrane, ERIC, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases were searched, 1652 records were identified. One thousand six hundred forty-one records that did not satisfy the inclusion/exclusion criteria and quality review were excluded, and 11 peer-reviewed articles were determined to be eligible for this scoping review. Despite the USA being considered iodine sufficient for the general population, the US dietary iodine intakes have decreased drastically since the 1970s, with iodine deficiency reemerging in vulnerable groups such as women of reproductive age. Although data to conduct a scoping review of iodine status among women of reproductive age in the USA was scarce, majority of the articles reviewed demonstrate emergent iodine deficiency in this population of women of reproductive age, indicating alarm for a public health concern needing immediate attention.

Keywords: Iodine; Iodine deficiency; Iodine status; Thyroid; Urinary iodine; Women of reproductive age.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Iodine / blood*
  • Iodine / deficiency*
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutritional Status*
  • Pregnancy
  • Thyroid Diseases / epidemiology
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Young Adult


  • Iodine