Prevalence, social and health correlates of insomnia among persons 15 years and older in Indonesia

Psychol Health Med. 2019 Jul;24(6):757-768. doi: 10.1080/13548506.2019.1566621. Epub 2019 Jan 8.


The study aims to investigate the prevalence and social and health correlates of insomnia symptoms in a national sample of older Indonesians who formed part of the 'Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS-5)' in 2014-15. A community-based cross-sectional study with a probability sample of 31,432 persons 15 years or older was conducted in Indonesia. Measures included information on insomnia, socio-demographic, health, physical activity, anthropometric and blood pressure. Results indicate that 55.7% of participants had no insomnia, 33.3% had sub-threshold insomnia and 11.0% had clinically significant insomnia symptoms. In adjusted logistic regression decreasing age, lower education, lower economic status, urban residence, lower religiosity, having experienced childhood hunger, and one or more disasters increased the odds of having insomnia. Poorer self-rated health status, increasing number of chronic conditions, functional disability, poorer cognitive functioning, and health care utilization in the past four weeks were associated with insomnia. Further, the prevalence of having insomnia was higher in those who were current tobacco users, were highly physically active, consumed infrequently fruit and vegetables, and frequently ate fast food and drank soft drinks. A significant proportion of Indonesians have insomnia symptoms and several risk factors were identified that can help in guiding interventions.

Keywords: Indonesia; Insomnia; adults; correlates; health variables; social.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Child
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Health Status*
  • Humans
  • Indonesia / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Young Adult