Background: Previous research suggests Kyolic-aged-garlic-extract to be effective in reducing blood pressure in a large proportion of hypertensive patients similar to first-line standard antihypertensive medication. High blood pressure has been linked to gut dysbiosis, with a significant decrease in microbial richness and diversity in hypertensives compared to normotensives. Furthermore, gut dysbiosis has been associated with increased inflammatory status and risk of cardiovascular events. Objective: To assess the effect of Kyolic aged GARlic extract on Gut microbiota, Inflammation, and Cardiovascular markers, including blood pressure, pulse wave velocity and arterial stiffness. Methods: A total of 49 participants with uncontrolled hypertension completed a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of 12-weeks, investigating the effect of daily intake of aged-garlic-extract (1.2 g containing 1.2 mg S-allylcysteine) or placebo on blood pressure, pulse wave velocity and arterial stiffness, inflammatory markers, and gut microbiota. Results: Mean blood pressure was significantly reduced by 10 ± 3.6 mmHg systolic and 5.4 ± 2.3 mmHg diastolic compared to placebo. Vitamin B12 status played a role in responsiveness to garlic on blood pressure in 17% of patients. Garlic significantly lowered central blood pressure, pulse pressure and arterial stiffness (p < 0.05). Trends observed in inflammatory markers TNF-α and IL-6 need to be confirmed in larger trials. Furthermore, aged-garlic-extract improved gut microbiota, evident by higher microbial richness and diversity with a marked increase in Lactobacillus and Clostridia species after 3 months of supplementation. Conclusions: Kyolic-aged-garlic-extract is effective in reducing blood pressure in patients with uncontrolled hypertension, and has the potential to improve arterial stiffness, inflammation, and gut microbial profile. Aged-garlic-extract is highly tolerable with a high safety profile as a stand-alone or adjunctive antihypertensive treatment, with multiple benefits for cardiovascular health. Trial Registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN12616000185460 (https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=370096).
Keywords: B vitamins; aged garlic extract; arterial stiffness; blood pressure; gut microbiome; hypertension; inflammation; pulse wave velocity.