We reported a development of murine monoclonal antibodies to a molluscan small cardioactive peptide (SCPB) and their application to immunolabeling of neurons in several molluscan and arthropod species. In vitro stimulations of mouse lymphocytes with SCPB conjugated to a carrier protein yielded exclusively IgM class antibodies; in vivo stimulation resulted in generation of both IgM and IgG classes of antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies of the IgM class labeled identified SCP-containing neuron B11 in the frozen sections of the buccal ganglia of Tritonia diomedia. These antibodies failed to stain any neurons in whole mount preparations. A monoclonal antibody of IgG1 subclass selectively labeled neurons in both frozen sections and whole mount preparations of diverse invertebrate species. Thus, neurons B11, B12, and GE1 and several other neurons of the buccal and gastroesophageal ganglia of T. diomedia bound the antibody, and a similar pattern of immunolabeling was found in the closely related gastropod Tritonia festiva. We also observed SCPB-like immunoreactivity in the central neurons of other nudibranch and pulmonate molluscs and in examples of insect (Acheta domesticus and Tehrmobia domestica) and crustacean (Semibalanus cariosus) classes of the Arthropoda. Our results suggest a specific pattern of distribution of SCPB-like immunoreactivity in the gastropod nervous system and a broad occurrence of SCPB-like antigenicity in the diverse invertebrates.