Objectives: To compare the effects of two new fluoride toothpastes with Dual Zinc plus Arginine to the effects of a fluoride control toothpaste in reducing bacteria in oral biofilm on teeth and in multiple soft tissue locations, as well as in saliva, 12 hours after 14 and 29 days of product use.
Methods: A randomized, single-center, three-cell, double-blind, parallel-group design was employed. The study protocol was approved by an Institutional Review Board. One hundred eighty adult subjects who met inclusion and exclusion criteria and signed an informed consent form were enrolled in the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the three study products: 1) 0.96% zinc (zinc oxide, zinc citrate), 1.5% L-arginine and 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium fluoride in a silica base, Test 1; 2) 0.96% zinc (zinc oxide, zinc citrate), 1.5% L-arginine and 1000 ppm fluoride as sodium fluoride in a silica base, Test 2; and 3) 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium fluoride in a silica base, Control, for twice-daily use during tooth brushing. Oral samples were collected from the teeth, tongue, oral buccal mucosa, gingiva, and saliva at baseline and 12 hours after 14 and 29 days of assigned product use and were processed, serially diluted, plated, incubated, and scored for viable bacteria. Statistical analyses were performed separately for each sample site using ANOVA and ANCOVA for within- and between-treatment comparisons, respectively.
Results: One hundred seventy-three subjects completed the study. Relative to subjects in the Control group, subjects in the two Test groups exhibited statistically significant reductions of 29-41% in numbers of bacteria in each of the five sample areas, 12 hours after 29 days of product use. Similar results were seen after 14 days of product use, but some differences were not statistically significant, indicating that the effects of these zinc-based toothpastes build over time with continued use. The two Test toothpastes were shown to be clinically equivalent using the Fieller's confidence interval test.
Conclusions: Toothpastes containing 0.96% zinc (zinc oxide, zinc citrate), 1.5% L-arginine and either 1450 ppm or 1000 ppm fluoride as sodium fluoride in a silica base provide statistically significant reductions in oral bacteria on the teeth, tongue, cheeks, and gums, as well as in saliva, compared to toothpaste with fluoride alone, 12 hours after 29 days of twice-daily tooth brushing. The results demonstrate that regular and continued twice-daily use of these new toothpastes provide 12-hour whole mouth antibacterial protection for whole mouth health.
Keywords: antibacterial protection; arginine; cheeks; clinical; fluoride; gingiva; teeth; tongue; toothpaste; zinc citrate; zinc oxide.
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