Periodontal disease is chronic inflammation that leads to the destruction of tooth-supporting periodontal tissues. We devised a novel method ("cell transfer technology") to transfer cells onto a scaffold surface and reported the potential of the technique for regenerative medicine. The aim of this study is to examine the efficacy of this technique in periodontal regeneration and the fate of transplanted cells. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) were transferred to decellularized amniotic membrane and transplanted into periodontal defects in rats. Regeneration of tissues was examined by microcomputed tomography and histological observation. The fate of transplanted PDLSCs was traced using PKH26 and human Alu sequence detection by PCR. Imaging showed more bone in PDLSC-transplanted defects than those in control (amnion only). Histological examination confirmed the enhanced periodontal tissue formation in PDLSC defects. New formation of cementum, periodontal ligament, and bone were prominently observed in PDLSC defects. PKH26-labeled PDLSCs were found at limited areas in regenerated periodontal tissues. Human Alu sequence detection revealed that the level of Alu sequence was not increased, but rather decreased. This study describes a novel stem cell transplantation strategy for periodontal disease using the cell transfer technology and offers new insight for cell-based periodontal regeneration.
Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells; periodontal disease; regeneration.