Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Meta-Analysis
, 19 (1), 36

Tobacco Smoking and Semen Quality in Infertile Males: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Affiliations
Meta-Analysis

Tobacco Smoking and Semen Quality in Infertile Males: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Pravesh Kumar Bundhun et al. BMC Public Health.

Abstract

Background: Nowadays, the total number of couples visiting an infertility clinic is on the rise. Tobacco smoking is considered one of the major factors leading to male infertility. In this study, we aimed to systematically investigate the impact of tobacco smoking on semen quality in infertile male participants.

Methods: Online databases (Cochrane Central database of Randomized Controlled Trials and the databases of MEDLINE and EMBASE respectively) were searched for relevant English publications that satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria of this analysis. The clinical endpoints which were assessed included semen parameters (oligozoospermia, asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia, and azoospermia), morphological defects of spermatozoa and the hormones involved in reproduction. RevMan 5.3 software was used to analyze the data whereby mean difference (MD) and risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were generated to represent the results.

Results: Sixteen studies with a total number of 10,823 infertile male participants (5257 smokers and 5566 non-smokers) were included. Results of this analysis showed oligozoospermia to be significantly higher in smokers (RR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.05-1.59; P = 0.02). Morphological defect of spermatozoa (MD: 2.44, 95% CI: 0.99-3.89; P = 0.001) was also significantly higher in smokers whereby significant head (MD: 1.76, 95% CI: 0.32-3.20; P = 0.02), neck (MD: 1.97, 95% CI: 0.75-3.18; P = 0.002) and tail (MD: 1.29, 95% CI: 0.35-2.22; P = 0.007) defects were observed. However, smoking did not affected the pH (MD: 0.04, 95% CI: [- 0.03-0.11]; P = 0.30) and motility (RR: 1.42, 95% CI: 0.97-2.09; P = 0.07) of spermatozoa. Additionally, tobacco smoking did not cause any dis-balance in hormones which were involved in reproduction.

Conclusions: In conclusion, with reference to the clinical endpoints which were studied in this analysis, tobacco smoking was associated with a lower sperm count and an increase in the number of morphological defects of spermatozoa. However, the pH and motility of spermatozoa as well as the production of hormones which were involved in reproduction were not affected in this population of infertile males.

Keywords: Asthenozoospermia; Azoospermia; Infertile men; Oligozoospermia; Semen; Smoking; Teratozoospermia.

Conflict of interest statement

Authors’ information

Dr. Pravesh Kumar Bundhun (M.D) is the first author. From the Department of Internal Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Ethical approval was not applicable for this systematic review and meta-analysis.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Flow diagram representing the study selection
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Oligozoospermia and teratozoospermia observed in smoking and non-smoking infertile male participants
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
Asthenozoospermia and azoospermia observed in smoking and non-smoking infertile male participants
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
Impaired motility of spermatozoa and pH of semen observed in smoking and non-smoking infertile male participants
Fig. 5
Fig. 5
Morphological defects of spermatozoa observed in smoking and non-smoking infertile male participants
Fig. 6
Fig. 6
Hormones involved with reproduction observed in smoking and non-smoking infertile male participants (part 1)
Fig. 7
Fig. 7
Hormones involved with reproduction observed in smoking and non-smoking infertile male participants (part 2)

Comment in

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 6 articles

See all "Cited by" articles

References

    1. Corrao MA, Guindon GE, Cokkinides V, Sharma N. Building the evidence base for global tobacco control. Bull World Health Organ. 2000;78(7):884–890. - PMC - PubMed
    1. Rojewski AM, Zuromski KL, Toll BA. Strategies for smoking cessation among high risk populations to prevent lung cancer. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2016 Dec 13:1–3. - PMC - PubMed
    1. Xu X, Chen C, Abdullah AS, Sharma M, Liu H, Zhao Y. Knowledge about and sources of smoking-related knowledge, and influencing factors among male urban secondary school students in Chongqing. China Springerplus. 2016;5(1):1879. - PMC - PubMed
    1. Patel A, Sharma PS, Narayan P, Nair BV, Narayanakurup D, Pai PJ. Distress in infertile males in Manipal-India: a clinic based study. J Reprod Infertil. 2016;17(4):213–220. - PMC - PubMed
    1. Practice Committee of American Society for Reproductive Medicine Definitions of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss: a committee opinion. Fertil Steril. 2013;99(1):63. - PubMed
Feedback