Special Considerations and Assessment in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2018 Aug;29(3):473-481. doi: 10.1016/j.pmr.2018.03.003. Epub 2018 May 8.


Multiple sclerosis is a progressive autoimmune neurologic disorder that may affect any region of the central nervous system. Spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis can be debilitating and detrimental to the function and quality of life of patients. Treatment options include oral medications, chemodenervation, physical therapy, and modalities. Cannabinoids in the form of a delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol oro-mucosal spray has been shown to be effective in addressing spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Successful treatment of spasticity will be integrated, multimodal, and individualized.

Keywords: Botulinum toxin; Cannabinoids; Multiple sclerosis; Spasticity.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Multiple Sclerosis / complications
  • Multiple Sclerosis / diagnosis*
  • Multiple Sclerosis / physiopathology
  • Multiple Sclerosis / therapy*
  • Muscle Spasticity / complications
  • Muscle Spasticity / diagnosis
  • Muscle Spasticity / physiopathology
  • Muscle Spasticity / therapy