Cross-Domain and Viral Interactions in the Microbiome

Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2019 Jan 9;83(1):e00044-18. doi: 10.1128/MMBR.00044-18. Print 2019 Mar.


The importance of the microbiome to human health is increasingly recognized and has become a major focus of recent research. However, much of the work has focused on a few aspects, particularly the bacterial component of the microbiome, most frequently in the gastrointestinal tract. Yet humans and other animals can be colonized by a wide array of organisms spanning all domains of life, including bacteria and archaea, unicellular eukaryotes such as fungi, multicellular eukaryotes such as helminths, and viruses. As they share the same host niches, they can compete with, synergize with, and antagonize each other, with potential impacts on their host. Here, we discuss these major groups making up the human microbiome, with a focus on how they interact with each other and their multicellular host.

Keywords: archaea; bacteria; bacteriophage; cross-domain; fungi; helminths; microbiome; protozoa; virus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Archaea / metabolism
  • Archaea / pathogenicity
  • Bacteria / metabolism
  • Bacteria / pathogenicity
  • Fungi / metabolism
  • Fungi / pathogenicity
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome / physiology*
  • Gastrointestinal Tract* / microbiology
  • Gastrointestinal Tract* / parasitology
  • Gastrointestinal Tract* / virology
  • Helminths / metabolism
  • Helminths / pathogenicity
  • Host-Parasite Interactions / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Models, Animal
  • Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms
  • Viruses* / metabolism
  • Viruses* / pathogenicity