Youth and Long-Term Dietary Calcium Intake With Risk of Impaired Glucose Metabolism and Type 2 Diabetes in Adulthood

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Jun 1;104(6):2067-2074. doi: 10.1210/jc.2018-02321.


Context: To the best of our knowledge, no previous studies have examined the role of youth calcium intake in the development of impaired glucose metabolism, especially those with long-term high calcium intake.

Objectives: To examine whether youth and long-term (between youth and adulthood) dietary calcium intake is associated with adult impaired glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes (T2D).

Design, setting, and participants: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study is a 31-year prospective cohort study (n = 1134; age, 3 to 18 years at baseline).

Exposures: Dietary calcium intake was assessed at baseline (1980) and adult follow-up visits (2001, 2007, and 2011). Long-term (mean between youth and adulthood) dietary calcium intake was calculated.

Main outcome measures: Adult impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and T2D.

Results: We found no evidence for nonlinear associations between calcium intake and IFG or T2D among females and males (all P for nonlinearity > 0.05). Higher youth and long-term dietary calcium intake was not associated with the risk of IFG or T2D among females or males after adjustment for confounders, including youth and adult body mass index.

Conclusions: Youth or long-term dietary calcium intake is not associated with adult risk of developing impaired glucose metabolism or T2D.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Calcium, Dietary / administration & dosage*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / etiology
  • Fasting / blood
  • Feeding Behavior*
  • Female
  • Finland
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prediabetic State / blood
  • Prediabetic State / epidemiology*
  • Prediabetic State / etiology
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Young Adult


  • Blood Glucose
  • Calcium, Dietary