First complete chloroplast genomics and comparative phylogenetic analysis of Commiphora gileadensis and C. foliacea: Myrrh producing trees

PLoS One. 2019 Jan 10;14(1):e0208511. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0208511. eCollection 2019.


Commiphora gileadensis and C. foliacea (family Burseraceae) are pantropical in nature and known for producing fragrant resin (myrrh). Both the tree species are economically and medicinally important however, least genomic understanding is available for this genus. Herein, we report the complete chloroplast genome sequences of C. gileadensis and C. foliacea and comparative analysis with related species (C. wightii and Boswellia sacra). A modified chloroplast DNA extraction method was adopted, followed with next generation sequencing, detailed bioinformatics and PCR analyses. The results revealed that the cp genome sizes of C. gileadensis and C. foliacea, are 160,268 and 160,249 bp, respectively, with classic quadripartite structures that comprises of inverted repeat's pair. Overall, the organization of these cp genomes, GC contents, gene order, and codon usage were comparable to other cp genomes in angiosperm. Approximately, 198 and 175 perfect simple sequence repeats were detected in C. gileadensis and C. foliacea genomes, respectively. Similarly, 30 and 25 palindromic, 15 and 25 forward, and 20 and 25 tandem repeats were determined in both the cp genomes, respectively. Comparison of these complete cp genomes with C. wightii and B. sacra revealed significant sequence resemblance and comparatively highest deviation in intergenic spacers. The phylo-genomic comparison showed that C. gileadensis and C. foliacea form a single clade with previously reported C. wightii and B. sacra from family Burseraceae. Current study reports for the first time the cp genomics of species from Commiphora, which could be helpful in understanding genetic diversity and phylogeny of this myrrh producing species.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Commiphora / classification*
  • Commiphora / genetics*
  • Exons / genetics
  • Gene Dosage
  • Genes, Plant
  • Genome, Chloroplast*
  • Genomic Structural Variation
  • Genomics*
  • Introns / genetics
  • Inverted Repeat Sequences / genetics
  • Microsatellite Repeats / genetics
  • Phylogeny*
  • Phytochemicals / biosynthesis*
  • Plastids / genetics
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / genetics
  • Trees / genetics*


  • Phytochemicals

Grant support

The authors are thankful to The Research Council, Oman for their financial support to ORG/BER/15/007. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.