Cases Referred from the Turkish National Screening Program: Frequency of Congenital Hypothyroidism and Etiological Distribution

J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2019 Sep 3;11(3):240-246. doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2019.2018.0255. Epub 2019 Jan 11.


Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate cases referred from the congenital hypothyroidism (CH) newborn screening program.

Methods: Infants referred to Pediatric Endocrinology between 30.09.2015 - 01.04.2018 because of suspected CH identified by National Neonatal Screening Program were prospectively evaluated.

Results: Of the 109 newborns referred to our clinic, 60 (55%) were diagnosed with elevated neonatal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). The diagnosis of elevated neonatal TSH was made in 52 (47.7%) and eight (7.3%) infants at initial evaluation and after follow up, respectively of all referrals with 86.7% (52/60) diagnosed at initial visit. The median first and second heel prick times were 1.8 (0-7) and 8.72 (4-30) days. The median age at starting treatment of the infants diagnosed as a result of initial evaluation was 22.13 (7-53) days. Clinical findings associated with CH were present in 19 (36%) of patients. Etiology in patients diagnosed with elevated neonatal TSH on admission was: agenesis in one (2.08%); ectopia in one (2.08%); hypoplasia in 14 (29.16%); normal gland in situ 16 (33.3%); and hyperplasia in 16 (33.3%). The median time to normalization of TSH and free thyroxine concentrations after treatment initiation was 11.02 (4-30) and 9.03 (3-30) days, respectively.

Conclusion: The rate of diagnosis in the first month was found to be 87%. The etiological incidence of both dysgenesis and dyshormonogenesis was equal at 33.3%. The majority of cases with normal thyroid gland will be diagnosed with transient hypothyroidism but some of them may be diagnosed with thyroid dyshormonogenesis so the rate of dyshormonogenesis will increase later after final diagnosis.

Keywords: Congenital hypothyroidism; neonatal screening program; newborn; thyroid hormones.

MeSH terms

  • Congenital Hypothyroidism / blood
  • Congenital Hypothyroidism / diagnosis
  • Congenital Hypothyroidism / epidemiology*
  • Congenital Hypothyroidism / etiology*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • National Health Programs
  • Neonatal Screening / methods*
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Factors
  • Thyroid Function Tests
  • Thyroid Hormones / blood*


  • Thyroid Hormones