Precision medicine is since long an ongoing refinement of classical medicine, integrating improved and more detailed pathophysiological understanding with rapid technological advances. In the heterogenous area of chronic kidney disease there seems to be a high potential for the improvement in treatment and prognosis for several causes, with new technologies under development, that are yet to be introduced in clinical practice. As in other medical disciplines, investigation of abundant peptide patterns (proteomics) has gained recent interest. Especially relevant for kidney disease, urinary proteomics may provide both improved diagnosis and, as reviewed here, also holds promise for personalized treatment in the future. So far, capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (CE-MS) is the most widely applied technique, and in addition to several cross-sectional and cohort studies, there is even an ongoing randomized controlled trial that will soon report on the concept used as a method of personalizing treatment. In addition, there is hope that urinary proteomics can turn into a "liquid biopsy," replacing the invasive diagnostic procedure. The next couple of years will provide more answers on the topic.
Keywords: albuminuria; chronic kidney disease; diabetes; glomerular filtration; urinary proteomics.
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