Pneumococcal meningitis before the introduction of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into the National Childhood Immunization Program in Poland

Vaccine. 2019 Feb 28;37(10):1365-1373. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.12.028. Epub 2019 Jan 9.


Background: Poland introduced the 10-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV10) into the childhood immunization program in January 2017. During previous decades, considerable changes had occurred in the surveillance system for invasive pneumococcal disease. Therefore, to provide baseline data on pneumococcal diseases before PCV10 introduction, we evaluated the epidemiology of pneumococcal meningitis (PM), the only syndrome monitored consistently since 1970.

Methods: Based on laboratory-confirmed cases reported during 2005-2015, we calculated the reported rates, serotypes distribution and antimicrobial resistance of pneumococcal meningitis isolates. Data from the mandatory national surveillance system was linked with data on cerebrospinal fluid isolates submitted to the National Reference Centre for Bacterial Meningitis. We used negative binomial regression with Newey West method to test for trend in rates of pneumococcal meningitis notified during 2005-2015 and Chi-squared test to assess changes in the serotype distribution from 2008-2011 to 2012-2015.

Results: From 2005 to 2015, the overall reported incidence of PM increased from 0.21 to 0.47 cases per 100,000 population, average yearly increase of 7% (rate ratio 1.07; 95% CI 1.06-1.08). The increase was primarily due to annual increase of 3% (1.02-1.05) among 15-49 years of age, 12% (95% CI: 1.10-1.13) among 50-64 years of age, 18% (95% CI: 1.16-1.19) among persons 65-74 years of age and 9% (95% CI 1.07-1.10) among persons ≥75 years of age. In children <5 years of age, serotypes included in PCV10 and PCV13 accounted for 75% and 80% of reported isolates, respectively. From 2008-2011 to 2012-2015, the proportion of PM cases caused by PCV10 serotypes decreased from 52% to 41% (p < 0.01). Overall, 28% of isolates were resistant to penicillin and 13% were non-susceptible to cefotaxime.

Conclusions: The introduction of PCV10 into national immunization program may have considerable impact on disease burden, especially on number of cases caused by isolates non-susceptible to antimicrobials.

Keywords: Epidemiology; Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, PCV10; Pneumococcal meningitis; Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunization Programs*
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Meningitis, Pneumococcal / cerebrospinal fluid
  • Meningitis, Pneumococcal / epidemiology*
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Middle Aged
  • Pneumococcal Infections / epidemiology*
  • Pneumococcal Infections / prevention & control
  • Pneumococcal Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Pneumococcal Vaccines / immunology
  • Poland / epidemiology
  • Regression Analysis
  • Serogroup
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Young Adult


  • 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Pneumococcal Vaccines