Cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular disease - The past, present, and future

Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2019 Mar-Apr;62(2):86-93. doi: 10.1016/j.pcad.2019.01.002. Epub 2019 Jan 9.


The importance of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is now well established and it is increasingly being recognized as an essential variable which should be assessed in health screenings. The key findings that have established the clinical significance of CRF are reviewed in this report, along with an overview of the current relevance of exercise as a form of medicine that can provide a number of positive health outcomes, including increasing CRF. Current assessment options for assessing CRF are also reviewed, including the direct measurement via cardiopulmonary exercise testing which now can be interpreted with age and sex-specific reference values. Future directions for the use of CRF and related measures are presented.

Keywords: Exercise training; Morbidity; Mortality; Prevention; Reference standards; Vital sign.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Cardiorespiratory Fitness / physiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / physiopathology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Exercise / physiology*
  • Exercise Test* / methods
  • Exercise Test* / standards
  • Humans
  • Reference Standards
  • Sex Factors